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Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

PW0-105

Chapter 18
High Throughput (HT) and 802.11n
Chapter 18 Overview

• 802.11n-2009 Amendment
• Wi-Fi Alliance Certification
• MIMO
• Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)
• HT Channels
• HT Mac
• HT Operation

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802.11n-2009 Amendment

• Defines the High Throughput (HT) PHY


– Sometimes called clause 20
– Part of the 802.11-2012 rollup
• Supports both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
operations
– Dual-band APs or separate APs are required

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Wi-Fi Alliance Certification

• Wi-Fi Alliance maintains an 802.11n


certification
– Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n
• Products are tested for two types of
capabilities (Table 18.1)
– Mandatory
– Optional
• Support must also be provided for WMM
and WPA/WPA2 Security
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MIMO

• Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO)


– Uses multiple radios and antennas
• Radio chains
• MIMO uses multipath to advantage
• Spatial multiplexing is used to improve
throughput
• MIMO will also use diversity at the same
time

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MIMO (Radio Chains)

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MIMO (2x3 and 3x3)

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MIMO (Spatial Streams)

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MIMO (MRC)

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Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)

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HT Channels (20 MHz non-HT)

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HT Channels (20 MHz HT)

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HT Channels (40 MHz HT)

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HT Channels (Channel Bonding)

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HT Channels (Channel Bonding 5 GHz UNII)

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HT Channels (Channel Bonding 2.4 GHz ISM)

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HT PHY Guard Interval (GI)

802.11a/g use
an 800 ns GI

802.11n may
use a 400 ns
short GI

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HT PHY Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)

• The MCS is a matrix defining data rates


– Based on channel width, modulation, spatial
streams, and GI
• In addition to these factors, unequal
modulation is supported
– One stream uses 16-QAM and another uses
QPSK for example

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HT PHT Operational Modes

• Non-HT Legacy
• HT Mixed
• HT Greenfield

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HT Mac (A-MSDU)

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HT Mac (A-MSDU)

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HT Mac (Block ACK)

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HT Operation

• 20/40 MHz channel co-existence


• HT protection modes (0-3)
– Mode 0 – Greenfield
– Mode 1 – HT Nonmember
– Mode 2 – HT 20 MHz
– Mode 3 – HT Mixed
• RTS/CTS and CTS-to-Self

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HT Operation (Non-HT Duplicate Format)

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Chapter 18 Summary

• 802.11n-2009 Amendment
• Wi-Fi Alliance Certification
• MIMO
• Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)
• HT Channels
• HT Mac
• HT Operation

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