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Modul 4:

Pengumpulan Data Lapangan


Outline Modul 4
 Work Sampling
 Five-minute Ratings
 Time Studies
 Value-Added Effectiveness Factor (VAEF)
 MPDM
 Interview
 Questionnaire
 Foreman Delay Survey

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Work Sampling
 Work sampling is a method of random observation
to get information about any activity. It enables one
to get the facts without the need to watch everything
and everyone all the time (Toth)
 Work sampling consists of categorizing the activities
of a sample of the work forces and using it to project
the categories of activities for the whole work force.
 Aim is to cut down time spent in activities other than
direct work. Work sampling is a measure of this. It si a
sort of cost report trying to optimize time spent in
different work categories
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How to Do Work Sampling? (1)
 Categorize the types of work you will look at:
 PIC uses effective (value-added/VA), contributory and
ineffective (non-VA) work (named as Productivity Ratings)
 Toth breaks down contributory and ineffective work into 8
categories. This allows him to better analyze the delays to
work:
 Late Start/Early Quit (LS/EQ)
 Personal Break
 Planning and Instruction
 Tools & Materials
 Transport (move while carrying something)
 Travel (move without carrying something)
 Wait
 White hats (supervision)

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How to Do Work Sampling? (2)
 Walk around the job and categorize what each
person is doing the moment you see them:
 Random sample
 Random route
 Plan time of visit (not break time, within five minutes of
breaks, slow times, bad weather)
 Everyone must have the same chance of being observed
at any time
 Add up the number of observation of the work
categories after you finish

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Planning Work Sampling Study
 Get a layout plan of the job and classify the work areas by
trade
 Classify the types of activities we are interested in looking
at
 Select time for observation
 Numerical:
 Select CONFIDENCE LIMIT
 Select LIMIT OF ERROR
 CATEGORY PROPORTION
 Select SAMPLE SIZE
 Do the observation
 Look at work force as well as supervision (in field or in office)

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Terminologies for Work Sampling
 CONFIDENCE LIMIT : a measure of the
dependability of our inferences. If we have 90%
confidence limit, then our inference can be relied on
90% of the time.
 LIMIT OF ERROR : a measure of the accuracy of our
inferences. It is the range on either side of an
inference within which the true value can be
expected to fall, given a particular confidence limit.
 CATEGORY PROPORTION : the portion or fraction
of the sample having the characteristic measured, and
it determines the size of the sample needed to meet
the confidence limit and limit of error.
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Related Technique
 Field Ratings (PIC)
 Field ratings require that the activity of workers be grouped
at the moment of observation into two classifications:
 Working, or engaged in a useful activity
 Not Working, or not engaged in a useful activity
 Implementation:
 Use mechanical counters mounted on a clipboard. One counter
records active personnel, the second counter records total
number that have been observed.
 At least 75% of the personnel must be in the sample to get
dependable results.
 The rating should be taken at the first instant of observation.
 No counts should be discarded.
 Add 10 % to cover foremen and personal time.

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Five-minute Ratings
 A quick and less-exact appraisal of activity than that
of field ratings and productivity ratings
 It is based on the summation of the observation
made in a short study period, with the number of
observations usually too small to offer the statistical
reliability of work sampling.
 Purpose:
 Create awareness on the part of management of delay in a job
and indicate its order of magnitude
 Measure the effectiveness of a crew
 Indicate where more thorough, detailed observations of planning
could results in savings

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Five-minute Ratings Implementation
 The observers with a watch and form for recording observation must place
themselves in a position from which they can observe a whole crew
without being conspicuous.
 For a small crews, all observed at the same time
 Large crews can be mentally divided into sub groups
 Individual in each group are then observed during consecutive blocks of
time of from 30 seconds to several minutes.
 If delays noted for more than 50% of the time, then rating for individual is
“delay”, if less than 50%  effective
 Effectiveness ratio is the sum of effective times for each individual and for
the crew divided by the total time of observation
 No crew should be observed for less than 5 minutes
 Minimum observation time (minute) should be equal to the number of men
in the crew

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Example
 Wati and Budi use two different methods of work
sampling to study a crew. Wati takes some 400 samples
over a period of 30 minutes by instantly spotting workers
and classifying their activities into “effective”,
“contributory”, or “ineffective”. She calls 150 samples
“effective”, 120 “contributory”, and 130 “ineffective”.
Simultaneously, Budi uses the 5-minute ratings technique,
observing workers for 30-second intervals. He claims 40%
of his samples as “working” and 60% as “delay”
1. Assuming Wati wanted at least a 95% confidence limit, what is her
approximate limit of error?
2. What LUF would result from Wati’s observation?
3. What LUF would result from Budi’s observation?
4. By comparing Budi’s LUF to Wati’s, how did Budi tend to classify work
that Wati called “contributory”?

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Time Studies
 Originating from Industrial Engineering Studies.
 Aim is to record the incremental times of the various
steps or tasks that make up an operation
 Since there may be variability in the way a task is
carried out or in the times for each step, it is often
advisable to record a number of cycles
 Two types:
 Stopwatch Studies
 Video Recording Technique

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Stopwatch Studies (1)
 Record the actions of individuals in the crew on
paper by observing them work. Categorize their
actions approximately every minute. Use the
stopwatch to record time.
 An observer can watch three people working if they
are close together and fewer if they are spread out.
Another variable that has to be considered is the
cycle time. Short cycle time are difficult to observe.
 Set up tabular format (e.g., work steps or resources
in columns across top, sequential times vertically from
top to bottom)
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Stopwatch Studies (2)
 The observer must decide instantly when cycles begins
and end.
 The study is limited by the ability and training of the
observer.
 The fatigue factor of the observer limits the length of the
study.
 If more than one observer is used, beginning and end
points of the studies must be defined to ensure that
observers are measuring the same cycles (e.g., truck haul)
 The scope of the information is strictly limited to the
information recorded.
 Try to get one cycle per crew member per cycle
component.

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Example of Stopwatch Studies
Event-based Recording: Only the times of significant state transitions are noted

TIME Resource#1 Resource#2 Resource#3 Etc.


0:00 Step 1 Idle Idle Idle
0:12 End Step 2 Step 2 Idle
0:34 Idle End End Step 3
0:45 Step 4 Idle Idle End
1:04 End Step 5 Step 5 Idle
1:27 Idle End End Idle
1:34 Step 1 Idle Idle Idle
Etc. End Step 2 Step 2 Idle

An alternative would be to have uniform time increment in the left column, and then
note under each resource where various task number start and stop.
(Uniform-time-interval Recording)
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Video Photography Technique
 To record data in a form that can be compressed upon
playback
 Video has the ability to record the tasks of a large
number of components and their interrelationships at
one time, in a form that can be analyzed any number of
times.
 Be aware of filming technique (PIC)
 Limitations:
 Records only tangible items
 Field of view is restricted in time and space
 Tedious, labor intensive, manual extraction of quantitative data
 Digital Video: Can integrate with existing computer application
software (automation)
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Value-Added Effectiveness Factor (VAEF)
 VAEF = (Effective (VA) work time + Contributory
time)/(Total time)
 Similar to LUF. However, LUF is based on samples,
whereas VAEF is based on classification of cumulative
times for each resource in the study (not just time
for the main operation steps)
 Where work samples are taken from the same
operation as that used for the time study, the LUF
should be close to VAEF

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Flow Chart for VAEF Work Classification
Yes
Move permanent object to final position?
No Yes
Combine or assemble sub-component of a permanent object? Value Added
No Yes
Perform finish work to specified tolerances?
No
Perform constructive action on permanent/contributory Yes
object of resource for VA task?
No Yes
Transport object or resource toward work face? Contributory
No Yes
Obtain information?
No
Yes
Move object in workface other than to its final position?

No Yes
Clean up, errors, training? Ineffective
No Yes
Idleness, wait, walk, non-work related activity?
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MPDM
 Refer to MPDM discussion in SI-5154 PAOK class

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Interview
 Systematic discussion to gather information from one
or more individual on the project
 Purpose:
 An ice-breaker to get you on the site
 Useful for free-flowing flexible discussion when you don’t know
anything about the job and its problem
 Be aware of how to do it and format of interview (PIC)
 Advantages:
 Flexible – can follow up on topics as they evolve
 Identity of respondent is known
 Non-response is low
 Distribution of sample is known
 From this follows the questionnaire

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Questionnaire
 The questionnaire:
 is based on the output from interviews.
 can be administered to a far larger sample than interviews.
 Can explore problem areas with unbiased focused questions.
 Purpose: Identify de-motivating and productivity-constraining
policies
 Approach:
 Keep simple and concise
 Focus parts on specific issues of current interest
 Sometimes ca use incentives to improve returns
 Minimum of 20 people or 10% of work force or a whole crew

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Foreman Delay Survey
 Foreman delay survey is another tool for making
productivity measurement on the project. It relies on
the theory that a foreman, who is the closest to the
work, can identify and estimate time losses at the end
of each day with reasonable accuracy.
 It tries to measure processes outside the foreman’s
control (under management control) that effect the
work.
 Problems: Foreman fears of it to be used against
them, while contractors think that foreman might use
it as scapegoat
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selesai

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