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MECHANICAL MATERIAL

HANDLING
FACTORIES ACT ,1948

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS FOR


MECHANICAL LIFTING.

SECTION –29 APPLICABLE TO


LIFTING MACHINES
CHAINS
ROPES LIFTING TACKLES
The Following provision shall be complied:
All parts including the working gear(fixed or movable)of every
Machine,every Chain,Rope or Lifting tackle shall be :
Of good construction ,sound material,of adequate strength and
free from defects.
Properly maintained
Thoroughly examined by a competent person,at least once in a
Year and record maintained.
No lifting machine,chain,rope or lifting tackle shall except for
TESTING be loaded beyond safe working load (Marked on the
equipment)
No Crane to approach within 6 mts. of any person deployed on
or near the wheel tracks of a traveling crane.
THE MAHARASHTRA FACTORIES
RULES,1963
LIFTING MACHINES,CHAINS,ROPES AND LIFTING
TACKLES.
RULE:64
No lifting machine,chain,rope of lifting tackle shall be taken in use
for the first time unless it has been “TESTED”and all parts have
been thoroughly examined by a competent person,(Except a fibre
rope or fibre rope sling)
A certificate specifying safe working load(s) has been obtained and
record maintained in the prescribed proforma(Form 12)
Every Jib crane (having varying lifting capacities at different radius)
Shall have attached either a automatic safe working load indicator
or an automatic jib angle indicator and a table indicating the safe
working loads at corresponding inclination of the jib or
corresponding radii of the load.
LIFTING MACHINES,CHAINS,ROPES AND LIFTING
TACKLES.
RULE:64
A table showing the SWL of every kind and size of chain,rope or
lifting tackle in use.(Various types) shall be displayed
prominently .
All rails of traveling cranes shall be of proper size,adequate
strength,have an even running surface,properly level
,maintained and supported.
All lifting machines ,chains,ropes and lifting tackle except a fibre
rope (sling) which have been lengthened,altered or repaired by
welding or otherwise shall not be used again unless it has
been adequately tested ,examined and certified by a competent
person.
No person under the age of 18 years or person who has not
been trained in the working of Lifting machines and acquainted
with the Hazards of the machine shall be appointed as a driver
/operator of the lifting machine or to give signals to a driver.
Planning of Lifting Operation
The Load ,its characteristics and method of lifting.
Selection of suitable cranes.
Lifting gear(the weight of winch forms part of the
load.)
Position of the cranes and load.
Proximity of hazards,space availability &
suitability of the ground.
Relevant environment/wind patterns which may
necessitate stopping of operation.
Any hazard that may arise to the members of
public.
Selection of Crane
Weight ,dimension and characteristics of the load.
Number ,frequency and types of lifting operations.
Operational speed,radius,height of lifting and
areas of movement .
Space availability for crane
access,erection,traveling operation etc.
Any special conditions imposed.
Sitting –will depend upon
Ground conditions,including slope(ground
should be able to withstand the loads being
transmitted)
Effect of wind (particularly when not
working)
Identification of Hazards
Check for:-
Overhead electric lines,structures(consult
electrical authorities for necessary
precautions)
Public access areas.
Underground services.
Minimum clearance from a fixed structure-
600mm.
Safe Working Load
To be established by a competent person after
seeing/erection of the crane.
Not to be exceeded other than for the purpose of
testing.
SWL –Freely suspended load and no loads to be
dragged.
The hoist rope must be plumb and no dragging of
load with the help of crane be permitted prior to
lift.
Operating in High Wind

All cranes have maximum designed wind


speed for safe operation.
Stop all operation,if limit exceeds.
Secure crane.
Raising or Lowering Personnel
Not to be permitted with normal cranes
intended for material handling.
Cranes designed with extra safety features
are only to be used with appropriate
cradles,man cage,chair duly protected
against all hazards.
Multiple Crane Lifting
Operations
Each crane be derated by 25% of SWL.
Planned with extra care.
Accurate assessment of the share of the load to be
carried by each crane.
Planned in a way that hoist ropes remain vertical
as far as possible .
Not be done by tower crane.
Under the supervision of a competent person ,who
should be only authorized to give signal.
Operators/Slingers/Helpers
No medical limitation.
Having an competency /experience certificate for
operation of a particular equipment.
Over 18 years of age..
Physically fit w.r.t. to eyesight,hearing,reflexes
and agility.
Able to establish weights,balance loads,judge
heights distances and clearances.
Should use tight fitting clothing and necessary
items of PPE.
Lifting Gear
All equipment between the crane hook and
the load,that is used for the suspension of
the load(weight of the lifting gear must be
included as part of the load weight)
Be tested when new and if repaired retested.
Have an identification number/tag and SWL
capacity.
Be examined and record maintained.
Lifting Gear

Be in good condition,fit for use and free


from bends,kinks or any other defects.
No make up lifting gear from what is
around at that time e.g.No tying of knots in
wire ropes,connecting chain slings using
bolt/nuts.
DO’S AND DON’TS
Know the weight of the load to be lifted and
ensure that it does not exceed the safe
working load(SWL) of the tackle and crane.
Use only authorised tackle which is marked
with the SWL.Unmarked tackle should be
reported to the supervisor.
Inspect all tackle before use.Report
damaged tackle and have it scrapped.
Avoid lifting with angles greater than 90o
between the legs of multiple legged slings.
DOS AND DON’TS
Remember that with three and four legged
slings,two legs may take all the load.
When reeving slings around a load,the angle at the
bight must not exceed 120o .
Never tie knots in slings or shorten by wrapping
them around crane hooks or by using a nut or bolt.
Always use the correct pins in shackles and fasten
them securely.
Never use rusty wire ropes or fibre ropes which
have been in contact with acid or alkalis.
GENERAL INFORMATION
ON WIRE ROPE
TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS
ADVANTAGE OF WIRE ROPE
Failure of wire rope is not sudden like chains
where the safety depends upon the ‘proverbial
weakest link’ as the failure of any one link will
allow the load to drop.
Wire rope slings are less flexible than chain slings
or fibre rope slings but possible advantage of this
lack of flexibility is that an end can be pushed
through under a load,which cannot be done with
chain or fibre rope.
STORAGE AND HANDLING OF THE
ROPE

Storage:Whether in Handling: Correct


reels or coils,rope and incorrect handling
should be stored off procedures are shown
the ground or floor to in the slides.
prevent swearting or
corrosion,and should
be kept under cover in
dry conditions away
from corrosive agents
such as mill dusts,acid
fumes,etc.
DOUBLE PART CHOKER
DOUBLE PART BASKET
DEFECTS IN WIRE ROPE

It is imperative to have insight on wire rope


failure as it can largely govern the selection
of rope.To a great extent the study of wires
from the defective rope can lead to the
causes of failure.
WIRE FAILURES
TENSILE
FAILURE:Generally
identified by a conical
type fracture and happen
because of overloading
sudden acceleration or
braking,reduction of
diameter and impact
loading.
ABRASION FAILURE
Take place due to wear over
sheaves ,drums,rollers,drum
flanges,guides and are
identified by a reduction in
cross-sectional area over the
outer most layer of wires in a
rope.Fatigue due to work
hardening and bending too
can be associated with such
failure.If the reduction in
diameter occurs more than
35% due to wear it is advised
to replace the rope.Proper
lubrication and alignment
will minimize such failures.
FATIGUE FAILURE
They are identified by
square breaks across the
wire.Some times square
break with a torn tongue
piece below the initial
transverse crack owing to
reduced wire section
under combined effects of
tension and bending are
observed.These defects
are found at places where
the drum diameter is too
small or constant
application of impact load
or inadequate groove size
or reverse bending exists.
CORROSION FAILURE
Pitting of wires take
place if the rope is
exposed to moisture
,acidic or chemical
environment.Corrosion
also accelerates abrasive
wear and failure due to
bending fatigue owing
to gradual reduction in
wire area.
PLASTIC DEFORMATIOM

In such type of
damages,work hardened
wire surface develop
cracks resulting in
failures due to bending
.Generation of side fins
under pressure giving an
appearance of wear is
also observed.
MECHANICAL DAMAGE

Careless handling can


result into mechanical
damages like dent
formation or nicking
of outer wires.It can
go up to an extent of
broken wires to
slapping against
obstructions or
hammer blows.
MARTENSITIC FAILURE

Martensitic failure
occurs when there is
localize heating and
sudden cooling of rope
surface.
DETERIORATION OF ROPES

Handling Damage
Cross over damage on winch or
drums.
Damage of rope on sheave and
drums.
Kinking of ropes
Birdcaging of rope.
ROUND SLINGS
WEBBING SLINGS
WEBBING SLINGS-WEBBING
STROPS
LASHING SYSTEMS
Conclusion
Beware of low cost option .
Poorly designed,manufactured,used and
maintained equipment is a major risk.
Where lifting equipment is concerned the need to
look beyond the price tag is paramount.
The equipment must have an adequate factor of
safety incorporated in the design allowing for
wear ,impact,dynamic loading and accidental
overloading.
Conclusion

All Equipment should have a


-- Birth certificate
Company with essential safety parameters
“MISGUIDED ATTEMPT TO ADAPT
AND COMBINE SLINGS ACCESSORIES
ARE AN ALL TOO FREQUENT FACTOR
IN ACCIDENTS”