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NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN CHILDREN AND

INFANTS
&

VALUE OF PLAY AND SELCTION OF PLAY


MATERIALS.
INTRODUCTION:
Importance of knowledge of
nutrition in children:
 Growth and development.
Sufficient amount of calories , fluids , proteins ,
vitamins and roughage.
Food - tasty and attractive.
Feeding schedules - to satisfy child’s appetite,
digestability and requirement.
Nutritional requirements-rate of growth of different
body tissues, age, sex and health status.
Nutritional inadequacy:

Growth retardation.

Repeated infections-gastrointestinal
& respiratory systems.

Symptoms related to inadequate nutrition -hunger,


irritability,wasting of muscle,
disturbed sleep.
nutrition in sick children:
• Fight infection.
• Symptoms are less severe than undernourished
children.
• Small frequent feeds- non irritating, easily
digestable.
• Recovery period : additional calorie diet and
proteins to make up the deficiency that occur during
illness.
Nutrition & feeding:
Nutritional requirement:
Diet must contain:
o Carbohydrates
o Proteins.
o Fats.
o Vitamins
o Minerals
o Fluids.
Nutritional Requirements:
AGE ENERGY PROTEINS
• Neonate 120kcal/kg 2.4g/kg/day
• Infant 112kcal/kg 1.44g/kg/day
• Adult 3000kcal/day(boys) 38g/day(boys)
2300kcal/day(girls) 30g/day(girls)

FLUIDS:
Neonate:150ml/kg/day
Adult:20-30ml/kg/day
VITAMINS AND MINERALS:
VITAMINS: Regulate metabolic process & promote
growth & maintenance of body tissue.
MINERALS : Essential for wide range of body
functions
Age Minerals
Calcium Phosphorous Iron
Infant 0.6g 0.2-0.3g 1.0mg/kg
Adult 0.6g 1.2g 35mg
breast feeding:

ADVANTAGES:
 Provides close physical contact-emotional bonding.
 Sucking process-development of facial muscles of baby.
 Optimum amount of CHO , proteins & fat.
 Easily digestable protein component.
 Protects against infections & allergies.
 First milk- Colostrum is rich in nutrients
 Hygeinic, safe readily available at right temperature
FOR MOTHERS:
• Rapid involution of uterus.
• Lose extra weight.
• Helps breast to return to normal shape and size.
• Natural birth spacing.
• Reduces risk of breast cancer.
DISADVANTAGES:
o Transmission of drugs, infections
o Prolonged breast feeding without complementary feeding
leads to malnutrition in the child.
o Smoking & alcohol intake – threat to the child.
SITTING POSITION

SIDE LYING POSITION


ARTIFICIAL FORMULA:
INDICATIONS:
Breast feeding is contraindicated.
Change in life style of women- socioeconomic concepts.
Inadequate quality of breast milk.

1.COW’S MILK FORMULA:

2.SPECIALISED FORMULA:
When the babies are allergic to cow’s milk & who have
malabsorption syndrome.
Soya- based formulas.
WEANING OR COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING:
The process to which the infant gradually becomes used to
the full adult diet.
Process of adding liquid or semi-solid food.

PROBLEMS:
• Breast feeding is stopped suddenly-psychological &
nutritional effects on younger children.
• Solid foods – diarrhoea.
• If weaning foods are not nutritious - malnutrition.
INTRODUCTION OF SOLID FOODS:

Consistency –liquid to semi-solid, semi-solid to solid.

 Start with1-2 spoons daily then gradually increase the


amount.
 Given when the child is hungry, in day time.
 Fresh food should be given.
 Solids should be fed gradually according to children’s likes.
 Observe for indigestion, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, rash.
CHOOSING OF WEANING FOODS:
Suitable to the family , easily available ,low in cost.
According to child’s ability to feed.
1)LIQUIDS : vegetable soups, fruit juices ,pulses .
2)SEMI-SOLIDS :potato ,pulses & root vegetables –well
cooked and mashed before feeding.
Mashed banana , soft mashed cooked rice and fish.
3)SOLIDS : cooked rice, chapathi , idli, bread , biscuits
etc
PLAY:
Definition:
Play is a child’s way of living or daily “work”, it can satisfy
the needs of the child for physical ,emotional social
&mental development.
VALUE OF PLAY:

PHYSICAL
DEVELOPMENT

INTELLECTUAL
SOCIALIZATION DEVELOPMENT

VALUE
OF PLAY
MORAL
THERAPEUTIC DEVELOPMENT

CREATIVITY
1) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:
Muscular and sensory abilities:
INFANTS : sensory abilities-tactile , visual & auditory
abilities.
TODDLER & PRESCHOOLER :

SCHOOL-AGE CHILD:
2) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT:
• They learn differences in shape, size, colour , number,
names.

• They expand their knowledge & language abilities by


reading or listening stories.
3) Moral development:

• Children learn moral values from parents , teachers ,


peers.

• They learn cultural values like honesty, integrity,


compassion during play.

• They learn to assume responsibility for their own


action.
4) creativity:
Playing with clay, finger paints,
paper & card board boxes….
5) therapeutic:
• Play can provide a release from stress and tension.
• Child can express emotions and release
unacceptable behaviour into socially acceptable
fashion.
6) socialization:
• Social and emotional development.

• Good social relationships, problem solving.

• Learn to give and take, right and wrong.


Selection of play materials:
• Child’s developmental need.
• Safe , durable , attractive.
• Toys that cause injury should be avoided.
• Toys may not be expensive but must be able to
create interest in children.
SOCIAL CHARACTERS OF PLAY:
1) ONLOOKER PLAY:
• Watch , but make no attempt to enter into the play.
• Active interest-in observing interactions of others
but do not participate.
2) SOLITARY PLAY:
• Play alone with toys different from those used by
others in the same area.
• Enjoy presence of other children but do not speak
to them
• Their interest is centered in their own activities
which they learned on their own.
3)PARALLEL PLAY:
• Play independently but among other children.
• Play with toys similar to other children.
4)ASSOCIATIVE PLAY:
• Play together & engage in similar activity.
• No-organisation, division of labor , goal.
• Act according to their wish.
5)COOPERATIVE PLAY:
• Children play in a group.
• It is – organised , with certain goal.
• There is a leader follower relationship.