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It came from the Latin word “ars/artis” which means to do or man



– It is a medium of expression because through arts we express

our ideas, emotions, feelings, without using words.
– Creative activity which involves skill or expertness in
handling materials and organizing them into a new.
Work of Art
– A thing of beauty having aesthetic value. Obra maestra, provides aesthetic
values to the viewers.
– It must have an artistic merit and literary merit.
– It is a symbolic state of meaning rather having a practical function.


Spolarium The Last Supper

Mona Lisa Madonna and child

Banaue Rice Terraces

Importance of Art
• Driven our existence

• Satisfies the needs for personal expression

• Develop our skills to express ourselves

• Challenge us to see things differently

• It unleash our hidden desires and passion

• It can change our ways in life

• To see the truth that we might understand before

• It gives pleasure, satisfaction and gratification

Functions of Art

• To express beauty
• It gives man moment of relaxation and spiritual
• It serves as a channel of man’s passion
• Arts reformed man
• Overcomes the feelings of restlessness and
Categories of work of art
considered to be great
• Best selling - it is very popular in its day, or is produced by an
artist who has done other very popular piece.

• Ground breaking- that it does not follow regular convention or

already tried artistic methods real closely. It is not, in short, just
one more soap opera following an old, old formula, no matter
how well done.

• Inherently beautiful - means just as the art critics do

require and demand that a work of art have an inner
harmony, beauty, and emotional/intuitive meaning that
are unified, strong and intense, and deeply moving to
us. Something that appeals to your senses and
Different classifications of Art
I. By the Audience
- focus on how audience classified arts

1. Performing Arts- something an artist used body as a medium.

An art form that is moving from one place to another.

Example: play, movies, live music, movies/TV, operas,

mime, puppetry, acrobatic, dance, and ballet

2. Visual Arts- usually exist in two dimensional form and stay in

one place. Something that we see and hear.

Example: painting, photography, drawing, films,

sculpture, engraving, wooden materials, silk screen,
cartoon, stained glass, mosaic, and stage setting.
3. Literature- talks about language that affects our imagination and
make us think

Example: non fiction, fiction, stage play, poetry, screenplay and


4. Sculptural- a three dimensional form that we can touch, see, and

climb. It stays in one place.

Example: Monument, Architectural Designs, Rice terraces, Rock

Garden, Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty, flower gardens, water
fountain, and buildings.
II. By Critics
- Focus on how people judge art
Major Arts or Fine Arts- those that includes music, literature,
sculpture, painting, dance, theater, photography, and architecture.

2. Minor Arts or Applied Arts- those that includes ceramics,

furniture, weaving, photography, and letterings.

a. Pure Art- created and performed for other sake and to satisfies the
Example: Watching movie

b. Practical Art- with a purpose, for practical use that

something is useful
Example: Chair and Table
III. By an Artist
- Characterize by special sensing, physical and special senses

1. Sight art- something that you can see, imagine, and create
Example: painting, drawing, mosaic, drafting design, stage
design, light displays and graphic design

2. Sound Art- something that you can hear

Example: Literature, Poetry, plays and Music

3. Touch Art- something that you can feel or touch

Example: Sculpture, Curving, Wood Craft, Pottery,
Dance Movement, and building
IV. Other Classification

1. Real Art- something that is understandable “what you

see is what you get”, objective and representational.

Example: photography, stage play, dance, sculpture,

and architecture

2. Abstract Art- non subject matter, non representational

that we cannot understand on the part of the listener.

Example: Grey Tree by Piet Mondrian

Elements of Art
I. Color (Hue) - gives meaning, value, intensity and saturation to
an object. It has series of wave lengths which strikes our retina.

Example of Color and its meaning

Color Meaning

Black - Death, despair, gloom, sorrow,

Blue - Infinity, Freedom, Calmness,
Brown - Humility
Green - Nature, Freshness, Prosperity, Hope, Money
Orange - Sweetness, Cheerfulness,
Pink - Feminity, love,
Red - Bravery, Energy, Passion, War, Warm
Violet - Royalty, Dull
White - Purity, Clarity, Simplicity, Virginity, Peace
Yellow - Joyful, Life, Vibrant, Sunshine, Happiness
Properties of colors
a. Value- lightness, brightness, darkness of color

b. Saturation- degree of quality, purity, and strength such as scarlet

and indigo. 2 to 3 colors in things.

Classification of colors
a. Primary colors- colors that cannot be formed from mixtures
because they are pure colors.
Example: red, blue and yellow.
b. Secondary colors- colors form out of combination of two
primary colors.
Blue + Yellow = Green
Red + Blue = Violet
Red + Yellow = Orange
c. Intermediate colors- colors form out of mixing one primary
and one secondary.


Yellow + Green= Yellow green

Red + Violet= Red violet
Red + Orange = Red orange

d. Tertiary colors- form out of combination of two secondary


Orange + purple = russet
Orange + green = citron
Purple + green = olives
II. Line - one or two dimensional art that indicates direction,
orientation, movement, and energy. It is considered as the oldest,
simplest, universal element.

Direction of Line

a. Vertical line- basic framework of all forms, power &

delimination, strength, stability, simplicity, and efficiency.
b. Horizontal line- creates an impression of serenity and perfect
stability. Rest, calmness, peace, and reposed.
c. Diagonal line- it shows movement and instability. Portrays
movement action.
d. Jog line- it shows violence, zigzag, confusion, and conflict.
e. Curve line- it shows a gradual change of direction and
fluidity. It signifies subtle form.
III. Medium - it denotes the means of artists to express his ideas, it
pertains to materials used to express feelings through art.

IV. Rhythm- pattern, arrangement of lines, color, synchronization

or connection of path that suggest gracefulness.

V. Style- the typical expressing and training of artist and outlook

in life.

VI. Structure- surface and quality of object either real or made to

be appeared real. It gives variety and beauty on art.

VI. Shape - the enclosed space defined by other elements of

art. shapes may take on the appearance of two-d or
three- objects.
Principles of Art

• Emphasis – the composition refers to developing points of interest to

pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work.

• Balance – it is a sense of stability in the body of work. It can be

created by repeating same shapes and by creating a feeling of equal

• Harmony – achieved in a body of work by using similar elements

throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to your

• Variety – refers to the differences in the work, you can

achieve variety by using difference shapes, textures, colors
and values in your work.
• Movement – adds excitement to your work by showing action and
directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane.

• Rhythm – a type of movement in drawing and painting. It is seen in

repeating of shapes and colors. Alternating lights and darks also give
a sense of rhythm.

• Proportion or scale – refers to the relationships of the size of objects

in a body of work. Proportions give a sense of size seen as a
relationship of objects. such as smallness or largeness.

• Unity – is seen in a painting or drawing when all the parts

equal a whole. Your work should not appear disjointed or
Different subject
work of art

1. Nature 8. churches
2. Woman 9. Child
3. Emotion 10. Fruits
4. Places 11. Toys
5. Animals 12. Landscapes
6. Events 13. Seascapes
7. Saints 14. Religion
Different ways of presenting
the subject
1. Realism - the artists portrays the subject as ease.
Example: Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet by Gustave Courbet in 1854
2. Abstraction - there is no subject 3. Distortion - usually done to
but only his feelings and ideas. You dramatize the shape of a figure
cannot figure out the subject/object. or to create an emotional effect.
Measurement is not
Example: Figura by Arturo Luz proportioned.
Example: Caricature
Artist and His Medium
- As the materials, the artist way of expressing his emotion in
order to communicate his ideas.

1. Visual - that can be seen and can occupy space.

Example: painting and drawing

2 Auditory/time - that can be heard.

Example: music and literature

- That can be seen and heard.

Example: opera, dance, drama and movies
Artist and His Technique

How to control his medium to achieve his desire in the work of art.
It also pertains to technical requirement of the particular work of art. It
is how he manipulates his medium
– The practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a
surface (support base). In art, the term describes both the act and the
result, which is called a painting.

– Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper,
canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay or concrete.

– Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and some modern

paintings incorporate other materials including sand, clay, and
scraps of paper.

– Tangible canvass that we see through the use of his hands.

– It is the most widely practiced and appreciated.

Example: canvass, paper, wood, plaster

History of Painting
It is originated in France and was introduced in the Philippines
by the Spaniards during 17th century.

The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-

historic humans, and spans all cultures, that represent a continuous,
though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and
spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing
river of creativity that continues into the 21st century. Until the early
20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and
classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual
approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically
parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries
African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art
each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-

The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France,

claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are
engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show
horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting.
However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two
rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest
layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated
to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of
rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley
region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old.
[1]There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France,
Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc.

In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting are

the best known media, with rich and complex traditions in
style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically
predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex
Filipino Painters

Juan Luna’s famous works include the “The Death of

Cleopatra”, which won him a silver medal at the National Exposition
of Fine Arts (1881) and “The Spolarium”, his greatest masterpiece
that won him a gold medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts
held in Madrid in 1884. The “Battle of Lepanto” won him another
gold medal at the Barcelona Exposition in 1888. Among his
last painting include “El Pacto de Sangre” which won first prize
in Paris and at the St. Louis Exposition, USA in 1904.
Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo's place in Philippine Art was secured
in the last quarter of the nineteenth century through his large
Neoclassical canvases which harvested Gold and Silver Medals in
prestigious International Exhibitions. At a time when merely to have
one's painting accepted and hung in the highly competitive
International Exhibits was a mark of having arrived as a painter,
Hidalgo's entries stood out among thousands of paintings (representing
in these Exhibits the best Europe and America had to offer) to win
distinction: a Gold Medal for his major work, La Barca de Aqueronte
and Silver Medals for two others (Jovenes Cristianas Expuestas al
Populacho and Adios del Sol). It is therefore through these two
historical paintings “in the grand manner" (a seascape with figure,
Adios del Sol is a departure from the traditional manner) that Hidalgo's
reputation as a painter is assured in both Philippine Art history and the
popular mind. He is the painter of “Assassination of
Gov. Gen. Fernando Bustamante.”
Purposes of Painting

1. Painting commemorates historical events.

2. For recognition of religious activities.

Elements of Painting

Different Mediums in Painting

1. Oil
2. Pencil
3. Watercolor
4. Charcoal
5. Tempera
6. Fresco
7. Pastel
8. Acrylic
9. Mosaic
10. Crayon
Different Techniques
• Ability which artist fulfill his work of art and manipulates ideas.

1. Realism - introduced by a French man named Gustave Courbet in

19th century. Adopted to describe things represent figures and exactly
how they look like in real life.
Example: sunset, sunrise, and nature

sunset sunrise
2. Surealism - invented from the word super naturalism. It is used to
emphasize the unconscious creative activity of the mind.



3. Cubism - initiated by Cezanne, the father of cubism. It shows
the flatness of the picture and rejects traditional perspectives.

Example: Demoiselles d’ Avignon in 1907 by Pablo Picasso

4. Expressionism - tries to express subjective feelings and emotions of
the artists. It is how the artist feels about the subject.

Example: The Scream by Edvard Munch in 1892

5. Impressionism - the artist depicts what stimulates the eye. What we
see is important in an impressionist. When they create an art they are
more concerned with the effects of lights that would get the attention
of the audience.

Example: Soleil Levant (Impression, sunrise) by Claude

Monet in 1872
6. Symbolism - the visible sign of something invisible such as ideas
or quality. Something that you can create in the mind such as
ideas that can be depicted through painting.

Example: La mort du fossoyeur ("The death of the gravedigger") by

Carlos Schwabe
7. Pointillism - a style of painting in which the artists use small distinct
dots of color forming a figure and it has an item of “luminosity” and
create the impression of a wide selection of other colors and

Example: La Parade de Cirqu by Seurat (1889)

8. Futurism - an art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th
century. Machine and motions is the main subject of this technique
which try to show movement and speed. Rejected the traditional
perspectives and attempted to glorify a new life.

Example: The City Rises by Umberto Boccioni (1910)

9. Minimalism - the form is reduced to outmost simplicity geometrical
shape which emphasizes space.

Example: The reconstruction of German Pavillion in Barcelona

10. Fauvism - the painter try to paint picture by using bright and
extreme colors in order to assume positive characters.

Example: The portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line) by

Henry Matisse in 1905
11. Dadaism - a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as
well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. It
shows a movement that shock and provokes the viewers.

Example: Hitler in Hell by George Grosz

12.Constructivism - derived from the word “construction.” Construction
of abstract pictures such as metal and wire.

Example: Model of the Monument to the Third International by Tatlin

Great philippine works in visual
Great and Popular Filipino Architects and Painter
Juan Arellano

• Manila Post Office (1930)

• Metropolitan Theater
Leandro Locsin

• National artist in modern

• Designed the CCP, Folk Arts
Theater, and UP Catholic Chapel.
Jose Manosa

• San Miguel Corporation in

Francisco Manosa

• Coconut Palace
• Our Lady of Peace at EDSA
Tomas Mapua

•Nurses Home at PGH

• Pioneer of modern architect

• Quiapo Church
Damian domingo

• Our Lady of Rosary

• The Altar of St. Peter in Rome
Juan arceo

• The only muralist in his time in • Portrait of Juan Antonio Zlaybar,

the Philippines. Archbishop of Manila, 1820
Simon Flores

• Religious paintings and portraits

from town of Pampanga

• Feeding the children

Paz paterno

• Known for her still life

Fernando Amorsolo y cueta

•A portraitist and • The burning of Manila

• Dalagang bukid
painter of rural • Early Sulu wedding
Philippine • Rice planting
landscapes. • Traders
Guillermo Tolentino

•Sculptor •Bonifacio
•Father of the Monument
Philippine arts •UP oblation
Michael Angelo

• was an Italian • Pieta and David

sculptor, painter, • Sistine Chapel
• Madonna of the steps
architect, poet, and
engineer of the High
Renaissance who
exerted an
influence on the
of Western art
Leonardo Da Vinci

• was an Italian Renaissance • Mona Lisa

polymath: painter, sculptor, • The baptism of Christ
architect, musician,
mathematician, engineer,
inventor, anatomist, geologist,
cartographer, botanist, and

• Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, • St. Peter’s Basilica

better known simply as Raphael,
was an Italian painter and
architect of the High

• Donato di Niccolò di Betto • David

Bardi, better known as • Penitent Magdalene
Donatello, was an early
Renaissance Italian sculptor
from Florence.
Pablo Picasso

• Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also • Old guitarist

known as Pablo Picasso, was a • The weeping woman
Spanish painter, sculptor,
printmaker, ceramicist, stage
designer, poet and playwright
who spent most of his adult life
in France.
Art in the present

• Hernando R. Ocampo – National Artist for Visual

Arts in 1991.
• Ang Kiukok – Another National Artist, paintings are
very much powerful and expressive.
• Manuel Rodriguez Sr. – pioneer in print making.
• Jose Joya – One of the leading abstractionist.
•Carlos “Botong” Francisco – greatest
Filipino Manual Painter
Victor Edades

•Father of Modern Art in the Philippines.


The term of " sculpture" comes from Latin word " sculpere" which
means to cut or remove pieces with a stone.


• It is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining

hard and/or plastic material, sound, and/or text and or light,
commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood.
• Aesthetic art of modeling shaping single block or mash materials
into a 3 dimensional form out of rock, wood, and metal.
Example: Statue of David and U.P Oblation
Statue of David U.P Oblation
The sculpture prowess of the Philippines occurred during
Spanish regime. The sculpture started when people begun to worship
statues “anino.” People began to do something on clays, loams then it
evolves through technology. It is often use to form religious item like
catholic saints. It is known to be the oldest art form.

It varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively

over the ages. The art of sculpture continues as a vital art form
worldwide. From pre-historic and ancient civilizations to the
contemporary, from the utilitarian and religious to Modernist
abstraction, and conceptual manifestations of both form and content,
a continuous stream of creativity & an extremely modest show of
compassion. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in
many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too
expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an
expression of religion or politics.
Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities
include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as
well as many in South America and Africa. Moses's rejection of the
Golden Calf was perhaps a decisive event in the history of sculpture.

Aniconism remained restricted to the Jewish, Zoroastrian and

some other religions, before expanding to Early Buddhism and Early
Christianity, neither of which initially accepted at least large sculptures.
In both Christianity and Buddhism these early views were later
reversed, and sculpture became very significant, especially in
Buddhism. Christian Eastern Orthodoxy has never accepted
monumental sculpture, and Islam has consistently rejected all figurative
sculpture. Many forms of Protestantism also do not approve of
religious sculpture.

There has been much iconoclasm of sculpture from

religious motives, from the Early Christians, the Beeldenstorm
of the Protestant Reformation to the recent destruction of the
Buddhas of Bamyan by the Taliban. Nonetheless, the Buddha
remains a popular subject for sculptural art, and sculptors all
over the world celebrate the Buddha in their work.
Materials in Sculpture Elements of Sculpture

1. Cluster 1. Form
2. Plastic 2. Color
3. Aluminum 3. Line
4. Bronze 4. Volume
5. Rock 5. Perspective
6. Wood 6. Texture
7. Metal 7. Style
Types of Sculpture
Some common forms of sculpture are:

1. Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides,

except the base, by space. It is also known as sculpture "in the
round", and is meant to be viewed from any angle.

2. Sound sculpture - Sound sculpture (related to sound art and sound

installation) is an intermedia and time based art form in which
sculpture or any kind of art object produces sound, or the reverse
(in the sense that sound is manipulated in such a way as to create
a sculptural as opposed to temporal form or mass).

3. Light sculpture - is an intermedia and time based art form

in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces light,
or the reverse (in the sense that light is manipulated in such
a way as to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form
or mass).
4. Jewelry – objects of personal adornment made of precious metals,
gems, or imitation materials.

5. Relief - the sculpture is still attached to a background; types are bas-

relief, alto-relievo, and sunken-relief

6. Site-specific art - is artwork created to exist in a certain place

7. Kinetic sculpture - involves aspects of physical motion

a. Fountain - the sculpture is designed with moving water

b. Mobile
8. Statue - representation list sculpture depicting a specific entity,
usually a person, event, animal or object

a. Bust - representation of a person from the chest up

b. Equestrian statue - typically showing a significant person on

9. Stacked art - a form of sculpture formed by assembling objects

and 'stacking' them

10. Architectural sculpture - Architectural sculpture is the term for the

use of sculpture by an architect and/or sculptor in the design of a
building, bridge, mausoleum or other such project.
Sculpture functions as an integral part of many ceremonies and
events. Often unnoticed, it gives us a visual reference for our emotional
experiences throughout the passages of life. Tombstones, for example,
are a form of sculpture commemorating death, a universal event.

Processes and Techniques

Processes in sculpting vary, and always depend on the materials
used. There is cast sculpture, where a material, such as bronze, begins
as a clay form that is cast in a mould to produce a given shape; there is
also carved sculpture, such as wood or stone.
Two distinct methods have emerged; an additive process,
where material is added again and again to build up the form,
for example with clay, and the subtractive process, where
the artist removes or subtracts materials to create the form,
as in marble or stone carving.
Sculpture may be free standing (sometimes referred to as
sculpture in the round even if it is a square shape), often on a
pedestal or base where you can walk around it, or relief, where
raised forms project from a background or surface. There is low
relief, where the figure emerges at a level closer to the surface;
and high relief, where the figure may almost be completely
detached from the surface or ground. Types of representation and
composition in relief are defined by their need for the ground
plane on which the forms are superimposed or from which they
emerge. Relief can be carved in wood or stone; molded in clay or
wax; cast in metal, plaster or resin.

The word music comes from the Greek “mousikê”

(tekhnê) by way of the Latin musica. It is ultimately
derived from “mousa,” the Greek word for muse.


– Consist of sounds and silences in such a manner

as to convey emotions and feelings of the composer.
– Combination of melodious tones, and sounds
of varying pitch to produce harmony.
Function of Music
1. Religious and ceremonial purpose

2. Release the tensions and emotion

3. To listen to music intelligently

4. Therapeutic value

5. For entertainment

6. Experience reflect music

7. Learning is made easy to music

Properties of Music
1. Pitch - highness and lowness of tone.
2. Duration - the length of time over which vibration is maintained.
3. Volume - loudness and softness of voice.
4. Timber/tone color - distinctive or individual quality of the sound.

Elements of Music

1. Rhythm - the over all movement or swing of music, slow or fast

2. Melody - emotional motions, sometimes called the memory
element of music. It is what the listener remembers.
3. Harmony - it is the combination of different tones and blending of
4. Dynamics - the softness and loudness of voice. It is the force of
5. Style - the result of restraining, temperament. Singers’ way of doing
his music.

Different Mediums of Music

I. Vocal medium – refers to human voice.

Vocal classes
a. Soprano - highest register of voice for female

Example: Sylvia dela Torre and Armida

Siguion-Reyna, (coloratura soprano) Charlotte Church
b. Mezzo soprano - medium register of voice for female
Example: Betty Allen (america) and Lea Salonga

c. Alto - lowest register of voice for female

Example: Claire dela Fuente and Isay Alvarez

d. Tenor - highest register of voice for male

Example: Luciano Pavarotti was (this century's most famous
tenor) Carreras, Pavorotti, Placido Domingo, and Eric Caruso

e. Baritone - medium register of voice for male

Example: Nonoy Zuñiga

f. Bass - lowest register of voice for male

Example: Tim Riley (performed in Gold City Quartet)
Solo - singing without accompaniment

Duet - a group of two singers or a composition of two voices

Acappella- is an all-male Contemporary Christian vocal group founded

in 1982 by Keith Lancaster, who has variously played the role
of singer, songwriter and producer throughout the group's
history. Chorus or choir - a musical ensemble of singers.

Choir/chorus - a body of singers who perform together. Often applied

to groups affiliated with a church.

Quartet - a method of instrumentation (or a medium), used to

perform a musical composition, and consisting of four parts.
II. Instrumental medium - with the use of musical instruments.

1. Strings - They consist of the violin, viola, cello, and double

bass. They all have the same basic shape, but are very different
in size. They each have four strings, are made of wood, and are
played by drawing a bow across the strings or plucking the
strings with the fingers.
2. Brass - instruments are the loudest members of the orchestra.
They include French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba. Brass
instruments are long tubes of metal which the player blows into
through a mouth-piece at one end. The player makes a buzzing
sound with his or her lips, and the sound comes out the other end
which is wider, like a bell.
3. Woodwinds - instruments are most commonly made of wood or
metal, and are played by blowing air across an opening at one end
or through a "reed", and by covering and uncovering holes along
the instrument with fingers or levers, keys, and pads. The
members of this family are flute and piccolo, oboe and English
horn, clarinet and bass clarinet, and bassoon and contra-bassoon.
4. Percussion - instruments are the rhythm section of the orchestra.
They make sounds when they are struck, scraped, or rattled with
hands or special sticks. Some percussion instruments have a
definite highness or lowness, a quality called pitch, and some do
not have a definite pitch. Xylophone, timpani, chimes,
vibraphone, and Celesta are examples of pitched percussion
instruments, while bass drum, snare drum, triangle, cymbals, and
tambourine are non-pitched percussion instruments.
Kinds of Music
1. Program music - any music which is connected on poem or
story more on literature.
Example: An Alpine Symphony by Richard Strauss

2. Folk music - tradition music of people, race, generation which

is past from one generation to another generation.

Example: Tinikling, Singkil, Itik-Itik

3. Art music - normally accompanied by piano. The most

sophisticated of all.

Example: Serenade by Franz Schubert

4. Jazz music - more on trumphets, violin, clarinet, trombone,
drums, and saxophone.

Example: Careless Whisper and Somewhere Over the


5. Classical music - depicts love

Example: Oh ilaw, hating gabe, nasan ka irog

6. Opera - combination of song, dance, acting, ballet,


Example: Miss Saigon, Chicago, les miserables,

New York
Composer - a person who create musical or literary work

Best Composers

Vennie Saturno = Be my Lady

Ogie Alcasid = Kung mawawala ka
Danny Tan = Close to where you are
Lito Camo = Para Sa’yo
Ryan Cayabyab = Kailangan Kita
Jose Marie Chan = Christmas in our hearts
Louie Ocampo = Say that you love me
George Canseco = Kastilyong Buhangin
The word “Dance” comes from an old German word, “Danson”, which means
“to stretch.”


- a sport and art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually
rhythmic and to music used as a form of expression, social interaction or
presented in a spiritual or performance setting.

- It is an art performed by individuals or groups of human beings, existing in

time and space, in which the human body is the instrument and movement is
the medium

- Rhythmic movement of the body to create emotions with music

- Succession or arrangement of steps performed for purposes

such as rituals or expression of inner thoughts

Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony,

rituals, celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the
earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of dance
from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock Shelters of
Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings
depicting dancing figures from circa 3300 BC.Dance does not
leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone
tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to
say when dance became part of human culture.

One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been

in the performance and in the telling of myths. It was also
sometimes used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender.
It is also linked to the origin of "love making." Before
the production of written languages, dance was one of
the methods of passing these stories down from
generation to generation.
Elements of Dance

1. Choreography - creation of steps with music and movement with

a rhythm of music

2. Costumes- the style of dress that a dancer wears. It depends upon

the color

3. Dancer - a person who perform synchronize movement. usually

employed on contract or for particular performances/productions
such as Anna Pavlova Patrick Swayze Rudolf Nureyev.

4. Decoration - it pertains to props, design and accessories.

5. Movement - the action of the dancer as they move to

create various and to communicate with audience
6. Music - the mood and the plan based on the music

7. Technique - control of the muscles over the body

8. Theme - it is actually the main content of the dance. It tells us

what the dance is trying to convey

Choreographer - Choreographers are generally university trained

and are typically employed for particular projects or, more
rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a
specific dance company. Joy Cancho, Geleen Eugenio, Leonides
D. Arpon, Gerald Casel, and Max Luna III Filipino
1. Folk Dance - it pertains to traditional dance

Example: Tinikling, Cariñosa,

2. Social Dance - it is a kind of dance that we perform in small gatherings

Example: Ballroom Dance, Cha Cha, Rumba, Waltz, and Sway

3. Modern Dance - based on the natural expressive movements by which

means the dancer expresses a wide range of emotions

Example: Solo, Group Dance, and Interpretative Dance

4. Ethnic Dance - used to perform their rituals

Example: Pagdiwata of the Tagbanwa of Palawan

5. Indian Dance - highly exaggerated facial expression and extensive
vocabulary of hand gestures

Example: Kathakali, Bhangra, and Punjab

6. Ballet - a stage entertainment which enacts a story of expresses a

dramatic idea through dance or theatrical story telling. It is a
combined with music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance.

Example: The Swan

7. Court Dance - a street dance.

Example: Panagbenga and Ati-atihan

8. Theatrical Dance - perform in order to convey drama or play.

Example: Opera, Myme, and Classical dance

Acrylic - synthetic material made from acrylic acid
Art critics - people who are expert in a work of art
Artistic Merit - quality of the work of art that people can
attach to that work of art
Fresco - painting done in watercolor on a wall or ceiling
before the plaster is dry

Human Being - highest form of creation

Last song syndrome - mental motion that associated with
Literary Merit - it is actually applied to the general fiction
characteristics against law. It is not precise but it
depends on judgment of the people.

Pastel - crayon of powdered pigment bound with a gum

Tempera - method of painting using an emulsion, example
of pigment with egg yolk and water