Anda di halaman 1dari 30

The Strategic Role Of

Information Systems
Introduction

Information system (IS)


Set of interrelated components: collect,
manipulate, store, and disseminate data and
information
Provides feedback to meet an objective
Examples: ATMs, airline reservation systems,
course reservation systems
Information Concepts: Data, Information,
and Knowledge

Data: raw facts


Alphanumeric, image, audio, and video
Information: collection of facts
organized in such a way that they have
additional value beyond the value of the
facts themselves
Data, Information, and Knowledge

Figure 1.2: The Process of Transforming Data into


Information
The Value of Information
Value of information is directly linked to
how it helps decision makers achieve their
organization’s goals
For example, value of information might be
measured in:
Time required to make a decision
Increased profits to the company
The Characteristics of Valuable
Information

Table 1.2: Characteristics of Valuable Information


The Characteristics of Valuable
Information

Table 1.2: Characteristics of Valuable Information


(continued)
What Is an Information
System?

Figure 1.3: The Components of an Information System


Computer-Based Information Systems

Figure 1.4: The Components of a Computer-Based


Information System
Traditional View of the Systems
Global System Configuration

Four types of system configuration:


Centralized Systems
Duplicated Systems
Decentralized Systems
Networked Systems
Business Information Systems

Figure 1.5: Business Information Systems


Types of Information Systems
TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Enterprise Systems
Enterprise Systems

Benefits: Challenges:

 Firm structure and  Difficult to build: Require


organization: One organization fundamental changes in the way
the business operates

 Management: Firm-wide  Technology: Require complex


knowledge-based management pieces of software and large
processes investments of time, money, and
expertise

 Technology: Unified platform  Centralized organizational


coordination and decision making:
Not the best way for the firms to
 Business: More efficient operate
operations and customer-driven
business processes
Management Information
Systems
Management information system
(MIS)
Organized collection of people,
procedures, software, databases, and
devices
Provides routine information to
managers/decision makers
Primary focus is operational efficiency
Management Information Systems

Figure 1.10: Management Information System


Decision Support Systems

Decision support system (DSS)


Organized collection of people, procedures,
software, databases, and devices
Supports problem-specific decision making
Focus is on decision-making effectiveness
Decision Support Systems

Figure 1.11: Essential DSS Elements


Specialized Business Information Systems:
Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence,
Expert Systems, and Virtual Reality
 Knowledge management systems (KMSs): an
organized collection of people, procedures, software,
databases, and devices to create, store, share, and
use the organization’s knowledge and experience
 Artificial intelligence (AI): field in which the
computer system takes on the characteristics of
human intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

Figure 1.12: The Major Elements of Artificial Intelligence


Organizations and Information Systems

Figure 1.16: The Value Chain of a Manufacturing Company


Organizations and Information Systems

Supply chain management (SCM)


Determines required supplies, needed
quantities, processing, and shipment
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Helps company manage all aspects of customer
encounters, including marketing,
advertisement, sales, service, and maintaining
loyalty
Specific Applications: Customer
Relationship Management (CRM)
Specific Applications: Supply Chain

How do information systems facilitate supply chain


management?
Specific Applications: Collaborative Commerce

How do information systems facilitate collaborative


commerce?
Performance-Based Information
Systems

Figure 1.18: Three Stages in the Business Use of


Information Systems
Roles, Functions, and Careers in the IS
Department

Figure 1.19: The Three Primary Responsibilities of Information


Systems
Global Challenges in Information Systems

 Cultural challenges  Product and service


 Language challenges challenges
 Time and distance  Technology transfer
challenges issues
 Infrastructure  State, regional, and
challenges national laws
 Currency challenges  Trade agreements