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Wireless

Cellular
Mobile
NETWORK
Yudha Nawa Anggara
PTEI A
17720251012
References
• William Stalling, Data and Computer Communications 10th ed.
• Behrouz A. Forouzan, TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4th ed.

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How does ‘My Location’ feature
work on Google Maps?

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Cellular Network

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Cellular network

• The development of cellular


network is the most
revolutionary in data
communications and
telecommunications.
• Cellular technology is the
underlying technology for
mobile telephones, personal
communications systems,
wireless Internet and wireless
Web applications, and much
more.

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The principle of cellular network

• The essence of a cellular network


is the use of multiple low-power
transmitters, on the order of 100
W or less.
• Each cell is allocated a band of
frequencies and is served by a
base station, consisting of
transmitter, receiver, and control
unit.
• However, cells sufficiently distant
from each other can use the same
frequency band.

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Frequency Reuse

In a cellular system, each cell has a


base transceiver. The transmission
power is carefully controlled (to the
extent that it is possible in the highly
variable mobile communication
environment) to allow communication
within the cell using a given frequency,
while limiting the power at that
frequency that escapes the cell into
adjacent ones. The objective is to use
the same frequency in other nearby
(but not adjacent) cells, thus allowing
the frequency to be used for multiple
simultaneous conversations.

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Increasing Capacity of Cellular Network

• Adding new channels


• Frequency borrowing
• Cell Splitting
• Cell sectoring
• Microcells

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Overview of Cellular System

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The Operation of
Cellular Network

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Other Function

• Call Blocking
• Call Termination
• Call drop
• Call to/from fixed and remote mobile subsriber

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Mobile Radio Propagation Effects

• Signal strength. The strength of the signal between the base station
and the mobile unit must be strong enough to maintain signal quality
at the receiver but not so strong as to create too much cochannel
interference with channels in another cell using the same frequency
band.
• Fading. Even if signal strength is within an effective range,
signal propagation effects may disrupt the signal and cause
errors.

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Wireless Local Area Network
(Wireless LAN)

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Wireless LAN
Configurations

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Wireless LAN Requirements

• Throughput
• Number of nodes
• Connection to backbone LAN
• Service area
• Battery power consumption
• Transmission robustness and security
• Collocated network operation
• License-free operation
• Handoff/roaming
• Dynamic configuration

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IEEE 802.11
Architecture

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IEEE 802.11 MAC (Medium Access Control)

• The IEEE 802.11 MAC layer


covers three functional
areas: reliable data delivery,
access control, and security.

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IEEE 802.11 MAC Frame

• Control Frame
• Power Save-Poll
• Request to Send
• Clear to Send
• Acknowledgement
• Contention-Free End
• CF-end + CF-Ack
• Data Frame
• 4 frame : carry upper-level data
• Data
• Data + CF-Ack
• Data + CF-Poll
• Data + CF-Ack + CF-Poll

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IEEE 802.11 Physical
Layer

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2 characteristics of WLAN

• In order to transmit over a wired LAN, a station must be physically


connected to the LAN. On the other hand, with a WLAN, any station
within radio range of the other devices on the LAN can transmit. In a
sense, there is a form of authentication with a wired LAN, in that it
requires some positive and presumably observable action to connect
a station to a wired LAN.
• Similarly, in order to receive a transmission from a station that is
part of a wired LAN, the receiving station must also be attached to
the wired LAN. On the other hand, with a WLAN, any station within
radio range can receive. Thus, a wired LAN provides a degree of
privacy, limiting reception of data to stations connected to the LAN.

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Access and Privacy Services

• Authentication
• DE authentication
• Privacy

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Mobile IP

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Mobile IP

• Mobile IP has two addresses for a mobile host: one home address and one
care-of address. The home address is permanent; the care-of address
changes as the mobile host moves from one network to another.

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Three Phases
• Agent Discovery
• Agent advertisement
• Agent solicitation
• Registration
• Registration request
• Registration reply
• Encapsulation
• Data Transfer
• From Remote Host to Home Agent
• From Home Agent to Foreign Agent
• From Foreign Agent to Mobile Host
• From Mobile Host to Remote Host
• Transparency

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Inefficiency in Mobile IP

Double crossing or 2X

Triangle routing
Triangle or Dog leg routing
routing
Dog Leg routing

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