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William L Masterton

Cecile N. Hurley

Chapter 5
Gases
Chapter Outline
• (5.1) Measurements on gases
• (5.2) The Ideal Gas Law
• (5.3) Gas law calculations
• (5.4) Stoichiometry of gaseous reactions
• (5.5) Gas mixtures: Partial pressures and mole
fractions
• (5.6) Kinetic theory of gases
• (5.7) Real gases

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Measurements on Gases
• Quantities to be known to describe the state of the
gas
• Volume
• Amount
• Temperature
• Pressure

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Volume, Amount, and Temperature
• Gases expand uniformly to fill the container in which
they are placed
• Volume of the container is the volume of the gas
• Volume may be in liters, mL, or cm3
• Moles (n) are used to express the matter in a gaseous
sample
mass
n=
MM

• Temperature of a gas must be indicated on the


Kelvin scale
• Recall that TK = t°C + 273.15

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Pressure
• Force per unit area
• In the English system, pounds per square inch or psi
• Atmospheric pressure is about 14.7 psi
• Mercury barometer is the device used to measure
atmospheric pressure

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Figure 5.1 - A Mercury Barometer

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The Barometer
• Measures pressure in relation to the height of a
column of liquid mercury
• First constructed by Evangelista Torricelli
• Consists of a closed gas tube filled with mercury
inverted over a pool of mercury
• Pressure exerted by the mercury column exactly
equals that of the atmosphere
• Height of the column is the measure of the
atmospheric pressure
• At or near sea level, the atmospheric pressure varies
from 740 - 760 mm

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Figure 5.2 - The Manometer

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Manometer
• Fluid used is mercury
• If the level in the inner tube (A) is lower than that in
the outer tube (B), the pressure of the gas is greater
than that of the atmosphere
• If the reverse is true, the pressure of the gas is less
than the atmospheric pressure

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Units of Pressure
• Gas pressure is expressed in millimetres of
mercury (mm Hg)
• Torr - Pressure exerted by 1mm of mercury at
certain specified conditions, notably at 0° C
• Atmosphere (atm): Another unit commonly used to
measure gas pressure
• Also known as standard pressure
• 1 atm = 14.7 psi
• 1 atm = 760 mm Hg

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Units of Pressure
• SI unit of measurement, the pascal (Pa)
• 1 Pa is the pressure exerted by a 0.1 mm high film of
water on the surface beneath it
• One bar = 105 Pa
• 1.013 bar = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 psi = 101.3 kPa

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Example 5.1
• At room temperature, dry ice (solid CO2) becomes a
gas. At 77 °F, 13.6 oz of dry ice are put into a steel
tank with a volume of 10.00 ft3. The tank’s pressure
gauge registers 11.2 psi. Express the volume (V) of
the tank in liters, the amount of CO2 in grams and
moles (n), the temperature (T) in °C and K and the
pressure (P) in bars, mm Hg, and atmospheres
• Analysis
• Information given - volume (10.00 ft3); pressure (11.2
psi); temperature (77°F); mass of CO2 (13.6 oz)

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Example 5.1
• Information implied - Molar mass of CO2
• Conversion factors for volume and mass formulas for
temperature conversion from °F to °C and from °C
to K
• Asked for
• Volume in L
• Pressure in atm, mm Hg, and bar
• Temperature in °C and K
• Moles of CO2

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Example 5.1
• Strategy:
• Find the necessary conversion factors
• Use the temperature conversion formula
• Convert oz to grams and use the molar mass of CO2
as a conversion factor
• oz  g  mol

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Example 5.1
• Solution:

28.32 L
• volume in L 10.00 ft × 3
3
= 283.2 L
1 ft

• pressure in atm 11.2 psi ×


1 atm
= 0.762 atm
14.7 psi
• pressure in mm Hg

1 atm 760 mm Hg
11.2 psi × × = 579 mm Hg
14.7 psi 1 atm

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Example 5.1
• pressure in bar 11.2 psi ×
1.013 bar
= 0.772 bar
14.7 psi
• temperature in °C °F = 1.8(°C) + 32;
77° = 1.8(°C) + 32;
°C = 25°C

• temperature in K K = (°C) + 273.15;


K = 25°C + 273.15 = 298K

1g 1 mol
• mol CO2 13.6 oz × × = 8.77mol
0.03527 oz 44.01 g
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The Ideal Gas Law
• Volume is directly proportional to amount
• V = k1n (constant T, P)
• Volume is directly proportional to absolute
temperature
• V = k2T (constant n, P)
• Relation was first suggested by French scientists,
Jacques Charles and Joseph Gay-Lussac
• Referred to as Charles’s and Gay-Lussac’s law, or
simply Charles’s law

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Figure 5.3 - Relation of Gas Volume (V) to Number of Moles (n)
and Temperature (T) at Constant Pressure (P)

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Figure 5.4 - Illustration of Charles’s
Law

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The Ideal Gas Law
• Volume is inversely proportional to pressure

k3
• V= (constant n, T)
P
• k3 is a constant
• Equation is of an inverse proportionality
• First established by Robert Boyle
• Equation is a form of Boyle’s law

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Figure 5.5 - Relation of Gas Volume (V) to Pressure (P)
at Constant Temperature (T)

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The Ideal Gas Law
• Combine k1, k2, and k3 into a new constant
• PV = nRT
• Ideal gas law
• R is the gas constant

L × atm
• Units of R: R = 0.0821
mol × K

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Table 5.1 - Values of R in Different
Units

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Standard Temperature and Pressure
• Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
• 1 atm pressure
• 273 K or 0°C
• At STP, one mole of any gas occupies a volume of
22.4 L
• Gas constant (R) can be calculated as
PV 1.00 atm × 22.4 L
R= = =0.0821 L . atm/(mol . K)
nT 1.00 mol × 273 K

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Gas Law Calculations
• Final and initial state problems
• Calculation of P,V, n, or T
• Molar mass and density problems

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Final and Initial State Problems
• In this type of problem, a gas undergoes a change
from its initial to its final state
• Involves the determination of the effects on V, P, n,
or T due to a change in one or more of these
variables
• Ideal gas laws are applied to these type of problems
• Two-point equations can be derived from the ideal
gas law to solve problems of this type

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Example 5.2
• A sealed 15.0-L steel tank is used to deliver propane
(C3H8) gas. It is fitted with a pressure gauge and a
valve. The valve automatically opens to release gas
when the pressure in the tank goes above 1.200
atm. The tank is filled with 24.7 g of propane at 25
°C. The pressure gauge registers 0.915 atm.
• A) If the tank is heated to 55 °C, will the valve open
to release propane? (Assume that the expansion of
steel from an increase in temperature is negligible.)

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Example 5.2
• Analysis:
• Information given - V (15.0 L); P (0.915 atm); T (25
°C); mass of propane (24.7 g) T (55 °C)
• Information implied - 2 sets of conditions for
temperature
• Asked for - Will the valve release gas?

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Example 5.2
• Strategy:
• Given two sets of conditions, you need to use the
formula for initial state-final state conditions
• A sealed steel tank implies that the number of moles
and the volume are kept constant
• Make sure all temperatures are in K
• Find P and compare with 1.200 atm

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Example 5.2
• Solution
• P2
V1P1 V2 P2 P1 P 2 0.915 P2
=  =  =  P2 = 1.01 atm
n 1T1 n 2 T2 T2 T2 25 + 273 55 + 273

• Will the valve open?


No. 1.01 atm < 1.200 atm

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Example 5.2
• B) The temperature in the tank is increased to 200
°C. The valve opens and releases propane. How
many grams of propane are released?
• Analysis
• Information given
• Before T increase - V (15.0 L); P (0.915 atm); T (25
°C); mass of propane (24.7 g)
• After T increase - V (15.0 L); P (1.200 atm); T (200
°C); mass of propane (24.7 g)
• Information implied - molar mass of propane
• Asked for - mass of propane released

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Example 5.2
• Strategy:
• Convert °C to K and mass of propane to mol
propane
• Given two sets of conditions, you need to use the
formula for initial state-final state conditions
• Find n2
• Convert n2 to mass of propane in the tank at 200 °C
and find the mass released by difference

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Example 5.2
• Solution:
• T o
C  K; 25 + 273 = 298; 200 + 273 = 473K

mol C3H8 initially (n1) 1 mol


24.7 g × = 0.560 mol
44.1 g
• Initial conditions
P1 = 0.915 atm; T1 = 298 K; n1 = 0.560 mol;
V1 = 15.0 L
• Final conditions
P2 = 1.200 atm; T2 = 473 K; n2 = ?; V2 = 15.0 L

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Example 5.2
• n2

V1P1 V2 P2 0.915 1.200


=  = ; n 2 = 0.463 mol
n1T1 n 2 T2 0.560 × 298 n 2 × 473

• Mass C3H8 in the tank


• (0.463 mol)(44.1 g/mol) = 20.4 g
• Mass to be released
• 24.7 – 20.5 = 4.3 g

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Calculation of P, V, n or T
• In this type of problem, one of the state variables is
not known
• Done by direct substitution into the ideal gas law
• Take care to follow the units through the calculation

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Example 5.3
• Sulfur hexafluoride is a gas used as a long-term
tamponade(plug) for a retinal hole to repair detached
retinas in the eye. If 2.50 g of this compound is
introduced into an evacuated 500.0-mL container at
83 °C, what pressure in atmospheres is
developed?
• Analysis
• Information given - V(500.0 mL); T(83°C); mass of
SF6 (2.50 g)
• Information implied - molar mass of SF6
ideal gas law (one state)
value for R
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Example 5.3
• Asked for - pressure (P) in atm
• Strategy:
• Change the given units to conform with the units for R
(mL → L; °C → K)
• You need to find n before you can use the ideal gas
law to find P
• Substitute into the ideal gas law: PV = nRT

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Example 5.3
• Solution:
• Change in Units
500.0 mL = 0.5000 L; 83°C + 273 K = 356 K
• Find n
1 mol
2.50 g × = 0.0171 mol
146.07 g
• P

nRT 0.0171 mol × 0.0821 L . atm/(mol . K) × 356 K


P= = = 1.00 atm
V 0.5000 L

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Molar Mass and Density
• Density = mass/volume
• Molar mass has units of grams (mass) per mole
• Ideal gas law
• Number of moles which appear
• Moles, n, can be expressed as mass/MM
• There is also a volume term in the ideal gas law

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Ideal Gas Law in Density Terms
mass
PV = RT
MM
mass  P 
density = = MM  
V  RT 

• Density of a gas does depend on


• Pressure
• Temperature
• Molar mass

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Figure 5.7 - Density of a Gas

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Example 5.4
• Acetone has a density of 1.96 g/L at 95°C and 1.02
atm
• a) How many moles of acetone are there in a 1.00-L
flask under these conditions?
• Analysis:
• Information given - volume of the flask (1.00 L); T=
95°C + 273 = 368 K; density = 1.96 g/L
• Information implied - mass of acetone (1.96 g)
• Asked for - moles of acetone

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Example 5.4
• Strategy:
• A gas occupies the volume of the flask; volume of
acetone = volume of flask
• Find n using the ideal gas law
• Solution:
• n
PV 1.02 × 1.00
n= = = 0.0338 mol
RT 0.0821 × 368

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Example 5.4
• b) What is the molar mass of the acetone?
• Analysis
• Information given - from part (a) n = 0.0338 mol
• Information implied - mass of acetone (1.96 g)
• Asked for - molar mass
• Solution:
• molar mass
mass 1.96 g
MM = = = 58.0 g/mol
moles 0.0338 mol

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Example 5.4
• c) Acetone contains the three elements, C, H, and O.
When 1.000 g of acetone is burned, 2.27 g of CO2
and 0.932 g of H2O are formed. What is the
molecular formula of acetone?
• Analysis
• Information given - molar mass of acetone (58.1
g/mol). The combustion of 1.00 g of sample yields
2.27 g CO2 and 0.932 g H2O.
• Information implied - mass of C, H, and O in 1.00 g
sample
• Asked for - molecular formula of acetone

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Example 5.4
• Strategy:
• Convert the mass of the product of combustion to the
mass of the element
• Obtain the simplest formula for the compound
• Compare the simplest formula’s molar mass to the
molar mass obtained in part (b)

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Example 5.4
• Solution:
• Mass of each element
• mass C
12.01 g C
2.27 g CO 2 × = 0.619 g
44.01 g CO 2
• mass H

2(1.008) g H
0.932 g H 2 O × = 0.104 g
18.02 g H 2 O

• mass O = mass sample - (mass C + mass H)


= 1.000 g - (0.619 + 0.104) g = 0.277 g

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Example 5.4
• Moles of each element
0.619 g 0.104 g
C: =0.0515 mol; H: = 0.103 mol
12.01 g/mol 1.008 g/mol
0.277 g
O: =0.0173 mol
16.00 g/mol

• Atomic ratios
0.0515 0.104 0.0173
C: = 3; H: = 6; O: =1
0.0173 0.0173 0.0173

• Simplest formula
• C3H6O

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Example 5.4
• MM of simplest formula
• 3(12.01) + 6(1.008) + 16.00 = 58.08 g/mol
• MM of vapor (from part (b))
• 58.1 g/mol
• Molecular formula
• C3H6O (simplest formula = molecular formula)

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Stoichiometry in Gaseous Reactions
• Balanced equation can be used to relate moles or
grams of substances taking part in a reaction
• When gases are involved, the relations can be
extended to include volumes
• Ideal gas law is used
• First stoichiometric relationship to be discovered was
the law of combining volumes
• Volume ratio of any two gases in a reaction at constant
temperature and pressure is the same as the reacting
mole ratio

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Figure 5.8 - Flowchart for Stoichiometry
Calculations Involving Gases

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Example 5.5
• Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is a common bleaching
agent. It decomposes quickly to water and oxygen
gas at high temperatures.
2H 2 O 2 (l )  2H 2O(l ) + O 2 (g )

• How many liters of oxygen are produced at 78°C


and 0.934 atm when 1.27 L of H2O2 (d = 1.00 g/mL)
decompose?

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Example 5.5
• Analysis
• Information given - temperature (78°C); pressure
(0.934 atm)
H2O2 - volume (1.27 L); density (1.00 g/mL)
• Information implied - mass and molar mass of H2O2
stoichiometric ratio of O2 to H2O2 (2 H2O2/1 O2)
• Asked for - Volume of oxygen

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Example 5.5
• Strategy
• Change °C to K and L of H2O2 to mL. (Density is
given in g/mL.)
• Find the mass of H2O2. Note that you cannot directly
use the volume of H2O2 to calculate the volume of O2
because H2O2 is not a gas.

mass H 2 O 2 
MM
 mol H 2 O 2 
stoichiometric
ratio
 moles O 2 
nRT/P
 volume of oxygen

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Example 5.5
• Solution:
• Mass H2O2
mass = (density)(volume) = (1.00 g/mL) (1.27 × 103 mL)
= 1.27 × 103 g
• Mol O2
1 mol H 2 O 2 1 mol O 2
1.27 × 103 g × × = 18.7 mol
34.02 g 2 mol H 2 O 2
• Volume O2

nRT (18.7 mol)(0.0821 L . atm/mol . K)(78 + 273)K


V= = = 576 L
P 0.934 atm

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Figure 5.9 - Electrolysis of Water (H2O)

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Gas Mixtures: Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions

• Ideal gas law applies to all gases, so it applies to


mixtures of gases as well
• Partial pressure - Part of the total pressure due to
each gas in the mixture
• Sum of the partial pressures is the total pressure

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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
• Total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the
partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
• Consider a mixture of hydrogen and helium
• PH2 = 2.46 atm
• PHe = 3.69 atm
• Ptotal = 6.15 atm

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Wet Gases; Partial Pressure of Water
• P H2O is the vapor pressure of water
• P H2O is dependent on temperature
• Consider the H2 gas collected by bubbling through water
Ptot = PH2O + PH2

• Partial pressure of water vapour, P H2O, is equal to the


vapor pressure of liquid water
• Vapor pressure of a substance is the pressure of the
gaseous form of that substance
• Intensive property
• Depends on temperature

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Figure 5.10 - Collecting a Gas by
Water Displacement

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Example 5.8
• A student prepares a sample of hydrogen gas by
electrolyzing water at 25°C. She collects 152 mL of
H2 at a total pressure of 758 mm Hg. Using Appendix
1 to find the vapor pressure of water at 25°C,
calculate
• (a) the partial pressure of hydrogen
• (b) the number of moles of hydrogen collected
• Analysis
• Information given - VH2 (152 mL); pressure (758 mm
Hg); temperature (25°C)

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Example 5.8
• Information implied - vapor pressure of water at
25°C
Volume and temperature are constant
• Asked for - (a) PH2
(b) nH2
• Strategy
• Recall that H2 and H2O(g) contribute to the total
pressure Ptot.
• Use Dalton’s law - Ptot = P1 + P2 + . . .
• Use the ideal gas law to calculate nH2 at PH2

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Example 5.8
• Solution:
• PH2
Ptot = PH2 + PH2O
PH2 = 758 mm Hg - 23.76 mm Hg = 734 mm Hg
• nH2
PH2 V [(734/760) atm](0.152 L)
n H2 = = = 0.00600 mol
RT (298 K)(0.0821 L . atm/mol . K)

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Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction
• One can rearrange the ideal gas law for a mixture containing
two gases, A and B

PA n A
=
Ptot n tot

• nA/ntot is referred to as the mole fraction of A in the mixture


• Partial pressure of gas A is its mole fraction times the total
pressure

PA = X A Ptot

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Kinetic Theory of Gases
• Molecular model
• Gases are mostly empty space
• Total volume of the molecules is small
• Gas molecules are in constant, chaotic motion
• Collisions of gas particles are elastic
• Gas pressure is caused by collisions of molecules
with the walls of the container

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Figure 5.11 - The Kinetic Molecular Model of a
Gas

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Expression for Pressure, P
Nmu 2
P=
3V

• N is the number of gas particles


• M is the mass of the gas particle
• u is the average speed of a gas particle
• Notes
• N/V is the concentration of gas particles
• mu2 is a measure of the energy of the collisions

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Average Kinetic Energy of Translational
Motion, Et

3RT
Et =
2N A

• Notes
• R is the gas constant
• T is the temperature in Kelvin
• NA is the Avogadro’s number

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Average Kinetic Energy of Translational
Motion, Et
• At a given temperature, molecules of different gases
must have the same average kinetic energy of
translational motion
• Average translational kinetic energy of a gas
molecule is directly proportional to the Kelvin
temperature, T

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Average Speed, u
1
 3RT  2
u=  
 MM 
• Expression for the average speed of gas molecules
• Directly proportional to the square root of the absolute
temperature
• Inversely proportional to the square root of molar mass

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Figure 5.12 - Relation of Molecular Speed to
Molar Mass

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Example 5.10
• Calculate the average speed, u, of an N2 molecule at
25°C.
• Analysis
• Information given - temperature (25°C)
• Information implied
R = 8.31 × 103 g . m 2 /s 2 . mol . K
MM of N2
• Asked for - Average speed, u, of N2 at 25°C

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Example 5.10
• Strategy:
• Change T to the appropriate units
• Note the units of the constant R 1
 3RT  2
• Substitute into the equation - u =  
 MM 
• Solution:
• Average speed
1
 3 g . m2  2
 3 × 8.31 × 10 2
× 298K 
u=  s . mol . K  = 515 m/s
 g 
 28.02 
 mol 

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Effusion of Gases
• Diffusion
• Gases move through space from a region of high
concentration to a region of low concentration
• Relatively slow process
• Effusion
• Flow of gas molecules at low pressures through tiny
pores or pin holes
• Easier to analyse using kinetic theory

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Effusion of Gases
• Factors affecting rate of effusion
• Pressure of the gases
• Relative speed of the particles

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Graham’s Law of Effusion
1
rate of effusion of B  MMA  2
  
rate of effusion of A  MMB 

• At a given temperature and pressure, the rate of


effusion of a gas, in moles per unit time, is inversely
proportional to the square root of its molar mass

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Figure 5.13 - Effusion of Gases

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Example 5.11
• In an effusion experiment, argon gas is allowed to
expand through a tiny opening into an evacuated
flask of volume 120 mL for 32.0 s, at which point the
pressure in the flask is found to be 12.5 mm Hg. This
experiment is repeated with a gas X of unknown
molar mass at the same T and P. It is found that the
pressure in the flask builds up to 12.5 mm Hg after
48.0 s. Calculate the molar mass of X.

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Example 5.11
• Analysis:
• Information given - volume of both flasks (120 mL);
pressure in both flasks (12.5 mm Hg); time for Ar
effusion (32.0 s); time for gas (X) effusion (48.0 s)
• Information implied - Temperature, pressure, and
volume are the same for both flasks
rate of effusion for each gas
MM of argon
• Asked for - MM of X

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Example 5.11
• Strategy:
• Since T, P, and V are the same for both gases, the
number of moles of gas in both flasks is the same
nAr = nX = n
• The rate of effusion is in mol/time
n Ar nX n
rate = = =
time time time
• Substitute into Graham’s law of effusion, where A =
gas X and B = Ar
1/2
rate B  MM A  rate Ar  MM X 
=  = 
rate A  MM B  rate X  MM Ar 

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Example 5.11
• Solution:
• Rates
n n
rateX = rateAr =
48.0 s 32.0 s

• MMX
n 1/2 1/2
32.0 s =  MM   MM X 
  1.50 =
X
n   
 39.95 g/mol   39.95 g/mol 
48.0 s
2
  MM  
1/2
MM X
1.50  =  
2 X
  2.25 =  MM X = 89.9 g/mol
  39.95 g/mol   39.95 g/mol
 

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Application of Effusion
• Used to separate U-238 from U-235
• Isotopes have the same chemical properties and so
cannot be separated by chemical means
• Preliminary experiments indicated that 238UF6 could
be separated from 235UF6 by effusion
• Separation factor is small, as the rates of effusion are
nearly identical

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Distribution of Molecular Speeds
• In a gas sample at any instant, gas molecules are
moving at a variety of speeds
• Speed and direction of motion of a particle are
constantly changing
• James Clerk Maxwell developed a mathematical
expression for the distribution known as the Maxwell
distribution
• Molecules have speeds rather close to the average
value

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Figure 5.14 - Distribution of Molecular Speeds of
Oxygen Molecules at 25°C and 1000°C

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Distribution of Molecular Speeds
• Plot the fraction of molecules having a given speed
vs. the molecular speed
• Curve that results has a maximum in the number of
molecules with the given speed
• Probable speed of molecules
• As the temperature increases
• Speed of the molecules increases
• Distribution curve for molecular speeds shifts to the
right and becomes broader

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Example 5.12
• Consider the two boxes A and B shown below. Box
B has a volume exactly twice that of box A. The
green circles and red circles represent one mole of
HCl and He, respectively. The two boxes are at the
same temperature.

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Example 5.12
• Compare the pressures of the gases in the two
containers
• Compare the densities of the two gases
• Compare the number of atoms in the two boxes
• If the HCl in box A were transferred to box B, what
would be the mole fraction of HCl in the mixture?
• Which of the two gases effuses faster?

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Example 5.12
• Solution:
• Since n/V and T are the same in both cases, pressure
P = nRT/V is the same for the two gases
• The mass of HCl is 2(36.5 g) = 73.0 g; that of He is
4(4.00 g) = 16.0 g. Since 73.0 g/V > 16.0 g/2V, HCl
has the higher density
• Two moles of diatomic HCl contain the same number
of atoms as four moles of He
• XHCl = 2/6 = 1/3
• Because HCl and He are at the same pressure, the
lighter gas, He, effuses faster

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Real Gases
• Deviate at least slightly from the ideal gas law
• Molar volume of a gas at STP is 22.4 L from the
ideal gas law
• Deviations from ideality become larger at high
pressures and low temperatures
• Closer a gas is to the liquid state, the more it will
deviate from the ideal gas law

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Table 5.2 - Real Versus Ideal Gases, Percent
Deviation* in Molar Volume

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Real Gases
• Gases can be liquefied by
• Lowering the temperature
• Increasing the pressure
• Deviations from the ideal gas law arise because they
neglect
• Attractive forces between gas particles
• Finite volume of gas particles

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Attractive Forces
• Observed molar volume for gases is lower than that
calculated by the ideal gas law
• Forces between particles pull the particles together
• Volume occupied by the gas is then decreased
• This is a negative deviation from the ideal gas law

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Particle Volume
• Consider a plot of the observed molar volume/ideal
molar volume for methane at 25°
• Up to 150 atm, the deviation from ideality steadily
increases
• Above 150 atm, molar volume/ideal molar volume
increases
• Ratio becomes 1 at around 350 atm pressure
• Above 350 atm, methane shows a positive deviation
from the ideal gas law
• This behavior is observed with all gases and is not
unique to methane

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Figure 5.11 - Deviation from Ideal Volume

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Key Concepts
• Convert between P, V, T, and amount of gas
• Use of the ideal gas law to:
• Solve initial and final state problems
• Calculate P, V, T, or n
• Calculate density or molar mass
• Relate amounts and volumes of gases in reactions
• Use Dalton’s law
• Calculate the speed of gas molecules
• Use Graham’s law to relate the rate of effusion to
the molar mass of a gas

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