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by Elaiza Recca L. Balasbas
In 2000, Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological
Solid Waste Management Act was enacted to
provide a framework for managing the growing
problem of solid waste in the country.
Industrialized nations are grappling with the problem of expeditious and
safe waste disposal. Non-biodegradable and toxic wastes like
radioactive remnants can potentially cause irreparable damage to the
environment and human health if not strategically disposed of.

Though waste disposal has been a matter of concern for several

decades, the main problem has been taking massive proportions due to
growth in population and industrialization, the two major factors that
contribute to waste generation. Though some advancement is being
made in waste disposal methods, they are still not adequate. The
challenge is to detect newer and unhazardous methods of waste
disposal and put these methods to use.
1. Preventing or reducing waste
Extensive use of new or unnecessary products is
the root cause of unchecked waste formation. The
rapid population growth makes it imperative to use
secondhand products or judiciously use the
existing ones because if not, there is a potential
risk of people succumbing to the ill effects of toxic
wastes. Disposing of the wastes will also assume
formidable shape. A conscious decision should be
made at the personal and professional level to
judiciously curb the menacing growth of wastes.
2. Recycling
Serves to transform the wastes into products
of their own genre through industrial
processing. Paper, glass, aluminum, and
plastics are commonly recycled. It is
environmentally friendly to reuse the wastes
instead of adding them to nature.
1.Recycling minimizes pollution
1. High upfront capital costs
2.Protects the environment
2. Recycling sites are always
3.Recycling minimizes global unhygienic, unsafe and
warming unsightly
4.Conserves natural resources 3. Products from recycled waste
5.Recycling cuts down amount of may not be durable.
waste in landfill sites 4. Recycling might not be
6.Recycling ensures sustainable inexpensive
use of resources 5. Recycling is not widespread
7.Recycling contributes to on large scale
creation of jobs
8.Reduces energy consumption
3. Incineration
Incineration features combustion of wastes to transform them into base
components, with the generated heat being trapped for deriving energy.
Assorted gases and inert ash are common by-products. Pollution is caused by
varied degrees dependent on nature of waste combusted and incinerator
design. Use of filters can check pollution. It is rather inexpensive to burn wastes
and the waste volume is reduced by about 90%. The nutrient rich ash derived
out of burning organic wastes can facilitate hydroponic solutions. Hazardous
and toxic wastes can be easily be rid of by using this method. The energy
extracted can be used for cooking, heating, and supplying power to turbines.
1.Better Waste 1. Not that Affordable
Management 2. Bad for the Environment
2.Less Dependence on 3. Long Term Challenges
3.Savings on
Transportation of Waste
4.Energy as a Byproduct
5. Uncontaminated
4. Composting
It involves decomposition of organic matters by
microbes by allowing the waste to stay
accumulated in a pit for a long period of time. The
nutrient rich compost can be used as plant
manure. However, the process is slow and
consumes a significant amount of land. Biological
reprocessing tremendously improves the fertility of
the soil.
1.Good Way to Recycle
2.Environmental Benefits

1. Effort Required
2. It Only Works in Certain
Open window composting
• Refuse is placed in piles, about 1.5m high and 2.5m
wide at about 60% moisture content
• Heat build up in the refuse piles due to biological activity
– temperature rises to about 70 degree C
• Pile is turned up for cooling and aeration to avoid
anaerobic conditions
• Moisture content is adjusted to about 60%
• Piled again – temperature rises to about 70 degree C
• The above operations are repeated
• After a few days (~ 7 to 10 weeks) temperature drops to
atmospheric temperature – indication of stabilization of
Mechanical Composting
• Process of stabilization is expedited by mechanical devices of turning
the compost
• Compost is stabilized in about 1 to 2 weeks
• To enrich compost – night soil, cow dung etc. are added to the refuse
• Usually done in compost pits
• Arrangements for draining of excess moisture are provided at the
base of the pit
• At the bottom of the pit, a layer of ash, ground limestone, or loamy
soil is placed – to neutralize acidity in the compost material and
providing an alkaline medium for microorganisms
• The pit is filled by alternate layers of refuse (laid in layers of depth 30
– 40 cm) and night soil or cow dung (laid over it in a thin layer)
• Material is turned every 5 days or so
• After ~ 30 days – it is ready for use
5. Sanitary Landfill
• This involves the dumping of wastes into a landfill. The base is
prepared of a protective lining, which serves as a barrier between
wastes and ground water, and prevents the separation of toxic
chemicals into the water zone. Waste layers are subjected to
compaction and subsequently coated with an earth layer. Soil that is
non-porous is preferred to mitigate the vulnerability of accidental
leakage of toxic chemicals. Landfills should be created in places
with low groundwater level and far from sources of flooding.
However, a sufficient number of skilled manpower is required to
maintain sanitary landfills.
1.Produce energy and can be 1. Areas heavily polluted
obtained by the conversion of 2. pollute air & water
landfill gas 3. Chemicals can seep into the
2. Direct fuel for combustion ground water system
3.Waste deposition that can be 4. Insects and rodents are
monitored attracted to landfills and can
4. Parks or farming land. result in dangerous diseases
5.Organic material can also be 5. Diseases and illness in the
separated from a properly communities living around the
6.Capture the natural gas or
• Open burning of Solid Wastes
• Dumping into Sea

• Establishment of Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in

Barangay and City level
• Composting of Biodegradable Waste to be used as
organic fertilizer
• Innovative way of Recycling of Non-biodegradablewaste
• Segregation at source Household level
• Innovative way of collecting segregated wasteusing
dumptrucks, tricycles and pedicabs
• Construction of Sanitary Landfill