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Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis

The cell cycle multiplies cells

 The cell cycle is an ordered sequence of events


that extends
– from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing
parent cell
– until its own division.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


• M phase/ Mitotic phase- it is where you can see the chromosomes and nuclei
• It is very short compar ed to the interphase

• During the interphase, DNA exits as chromatin rather than as chromosomes

• INTERPHASE IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PHASES:

*G1 phase (GAP 1)- decision making step


- when the cell decides if it will start the cell cycle or rest
permanently exit the cell cycle to become a differentiated cell(G0 phase).
- if the cell decides to pass through the G1 phase, then it
will commit to undergo the S phase.

* S phase/ synthesis phase- DNA replication occurs


-nucleus becomes larger twice the amount of DNA
* G2 phase further growth and final preparation for mitosis happen,

• At the end of the M phase, the cell undergoes a physical division via cytokinesis.
Cell division is a continuum of dynamic
changes
 During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm is divided into separate
cells.
 The process of cytokinesis differs in animal and plant cells.
Cytokinesis
Cleavage
furrow Contracting ring of
microfilaments

Daughter
cells

Cleavage
furrow
• At the start of a cell cycle, a eukaryotic cell is
usually diploid.

• Sister chromatids- replicated strand during the S


phase , duplicate copy of DNA content
Mitosis
 Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell
divides to produce two new cells that are genetically
identical to itself.
 Mitosis is the part of the division process in which
the DNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal
sets of chromosomes.
Phases of mitosis
 Mitosis consists of four basic phases: prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
 These phases occur in strict sequential order, and
cytokinesis - the process of dividing the cell contents
to make two new cells - starts in anaphase or
telophase.
Early prophase

 The cell starts to break down some structures and build


others up, setting the stage for division of the chromosomes.
 The chromosomes start to condense The mitotic
spindle begins to form. The spindle is a structure made of
microtubules, strong fibers that are part of the cell’s
“skeleton.” Its job is to organize the chromosomes and move
them around during mitosis.
The nucleolus ,a part of the nucleus where
ribosomes are made, disappears. This is a sign
that the nucleus is getting ready to break down
 In late prophase, the mitotic spindle begins to
capture and organize the chromosomes.
 The chromosomes finish condensing, so they are
very compact.
 The nuclear envelope breaks down, releasing the
chromosomes.
 The mitotic spindle grows more, and some of the
microtubules start to “capture” chromosomes.
metaphase

 In metaphase, the spindle has captured all the


chromosomes and lined them up at the middle of the
cell, ready to divide.
 All the chromosomes align at the metaphase
plate (not a physical structure, just a term for the
plane where the chromosomes line up).
 At this stage, the two kinetochores of each
chromosome should be attached to microtubules
from opposite spindle poles.
Anaphase

 In anaphase, the sister chromatids separate from


each other and are pulled towards opposite ends of
the cell.
 The protein “glue” that holds the sister chromatids
together is broken down, allowing them to separate.
Each is now its own chromosome. The
chromosomes of each pair are pulled towards
opposite ends of the cell.
 Microtubules not attached to chromosomes elongate
and push apart, separating the poles and making the
cell longer.
 In telophase, the cell is nearly done dividing, and it
starts to re-establish its normal structures as
cytokinesis (division of the cell contents) takes place.
 The mitotic spindle is broken down into its building
blocks.
 Two new nuclei form, one for each set of
chromosomes. Nuclear membranes and nucleoli
reappear.
 The chromosomes begin to decondense and return
to their “stringy” form.
Meiosis
• Production/formation of __________

• Basis of sexual reproduction


• Only germ cells undergo meiosis
• Meiosis is a process where a single cell
divides twice to produce four cells
containing half the original amount of
genetic information. These cells are our
sex cells – sperm in males, eggs in
females.
How meiosis halves chromosome number…

INTERPHASE MEIOSIS I MEIOSIS II

Sister
chromatids

1 2 3

A pair of A pair of
homologous duplicated
chromosomes homologous
in a diploid chromosomes
parent cell
MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate
INTERPHASE:
Chromosomes duplicate Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I

Centrosomes Spindle microtubules Sister chromatids


(with centriole Sites of crossing over
attached to a kinetochore remain attached
pairs) Centrioles Spindle

Tetrad
Chromatin Sister Metaphase
Nuclear Centromere
envelope chromatids Fragments (with a plate Homologous
of the kinetochore) chromosomes
nuclear separate
envelope
MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II and Cytokinesis

Sister chromatids Haploid daughter


separate cells forming