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Introduction to IP QoS

Converged Networks Quality Issues

Converged Network Quality Issues

 Converged traffic characteristics:

– Constant small-packet voice flow competes with bursty data flow.
– Critical traffic must get priority.
– Voice and video are time-sensitive.
– Brief outages are not acceptable.

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Converged Network Quality Issues (Cont.)

– Lack of bandwidth
– Delay
– Jitter (variable delay)
– Packet loss

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Lack of Bandwidth

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Bandwidth Availability

– Upgrade the link (the best but also the most

expensive solution).
– Forward the important packets first.
– Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (it takes
– Compress IP packet headers.
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End-to-End Delay
Types of Delay

– Processing delay: The time it takes for a router to take the packet
from an input interface, examine it, and put it into the output queue
of the output interface.
– Queuing delay: The time a packet resides in the output queue of a
– Serialization delay: The time it takes to place the “bits on the wire.”
– Propagation delay: The time it takes for the packet to cross the link
from one end to the other.
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Ways to Reduce Delay

– Upgrade the link (the best solution but also the most
– Forward the important packets first.
– Enable reprioritization of important packets.
– Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (it takes time).
– Compress IP packet headers.
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Packet Loss
Packet Loss
Impact of Packet Loss

– Telephone call: “I cannot understand you.

Your voice is breaking up.”

– Teleconferencing: “The picture is very jerky.

Voice is not synchronized.”

– Publishing company: “This file is corrupted.”

– Call center: “Please hold while my screen


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Impact of Packet Loss (Cont.)

– Tail drops occur when the output queue is full. Tail drops
are common and happen when a link is congested.
– Many other types of drops occur, usually the result of
congestion, that are uncommon and may require a
hardware upgrade (such as, input drop, ignore, overrun,
frame errors).
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Ways to Prevent Packet Loss

– Upgrade the link (the best solution but also the

most expensive).
– Guarantee enough bandwidth to sensitive packets.
– Prevent congestion by randomly dropping less
important packets before congestion occurs.

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QoS Defined

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QoS Models
QoS Models
QoS Models

Model Characteristics
Best effort No QoS is applied to packets.

IntServ Applications signal to the network

that they require certain QoS
DiffServ The network recognizes classes that
require QoS.

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Best Effort Model
Best Effort
Best-Effort Model

–Internet was initially based on a

best-effort packet delivery service.
–There is no differentiation among
types of traffic.
–Best-effort is the default mode for
all traffic.

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Benefits and Drawbacks
of the Best-Effort Model

•Highly scalable
•No special mechanisms required
•No service guarantees
•No service differentiation

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IntServ Model
Integrated service Model
IntServ Model
– IntServ model was driven by real-time
applications, such as remote video and voice.
– End-to-end model
– It is guaranty's service and predict network
– Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used
as a signaling protocol.
– Requested QoS will be reserved by devices.
– End-to-end streams are not established if the
required QoS parameters are not available.

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IntServ Model (Cont.)

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Benefits and Drawbacks of the
IntServ Model
– Benefits:
• Explicit resource admission control
• Per-request policy admission control
• Signaling of dynamic port numbers

– Drawbacks:

• Flow-based approach not scalable to large

implementations, such as the public Internet.
• Continuous signaling

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RSVP and the IntServ QoS Model
RSVP in Action

– RSVP sets up a path through the network with the

requested QoS.
– RSVP is used for CAC in Cisco Unified CallManager 5.0.

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DiffServ Model
Differentiated Services
DiffServ Model

– DiffServ overcomes the limitations of

best-effort and IntServ models.
– Per-Hop-Behavior model.
– Network traffic is identified by classes.
– QoS policy enforces differentiated
treatment of traffic classes.
– Need to choose level of service for each
traffic class.

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Benefits & Drawbacks of the DiffServ

•Highly scalable
•Many levels of quality possible
•No absolute service guarantee
•Complex mechanisms

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Implementing QoS
Implementing QoS

 Identify traffic and its requirements.

 Divide and mark traffic into classes.
 Define QoS policies for each class.

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QoS Traffic Classes—The
Requirements of Different Traffic
Identify Traffic and Its Requirements

– Network audit: Identify traffic on the network.

– Business audit: Determine how important each
type of traffic is for business.
– Service levels required: Determine required
response time.

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The Requirements of Different Traffic

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QoS Policy
QoS Policy
QoS Policy

– A network wide
definition of the
specific levels of
QoS assigned to
different classes
of network traffic

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Methods for Implementing QoS Policy
Methods for Implementing QoS Policy

Method Description
Legacy CLI – CLI
– Configures QoS on interface level
– Time-consuming
– Makes configurations modular
– Best way for QoS fine tuning
Cisco AutoQoS – Applies a possible QoS configuration
to the interfaces
– Fastest way to implement QoS
Cisco SDM QoS – Application for simple QoS
wizard configurations

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Legacy CLI
Legacy CLI
Legacy CLI Example

 For interactive traffic, CQ and TCP header

compression can be used.
interface s 0
encap ppp
ip address
custom-queue-list 1
ip tcp header-compression

queue-list 1 protocol ip 2 tcp 23

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Modular QoS CLI
Modular QoS
Modular QoS CLI

– A command syntax for configuring QoS policy

– Reduces configuration steps and time
– Configures policy, not “raw” per-interface
– Uniform CLI across major Cisco IOS platforms
– Uniform CLI structure for all QoS features
– Separates classification engine from the policy

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Modular QoS CLI Components

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Modular QoS CLI Components

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Modular QoS CLI Components

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Class Maps

– “What traffic do we care about?”

– Each class is identified using a class map.
– A traffic class contains three major elements:
• A case-sensitive name
• A series of match commands
• An instruction on how to evaluate the match
commands if more than one match command exists
in the traffic class
– Class maps can operate in two modes:
• Match all: All conditions have to succeed.
• Match any: At least one condition must succeed.
– The default mode is match all.

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Policy Maps

– “What will be done to this traffic?”

– Defines a traffic policy, which configures the
QoS features associated with a traffic class
previously identified using a class map.
– A traffic policy contains three major elements:
• A case-sensitive name
• A traffic class
• The QoS policy associated with that traffic class
– Up to 256 traffic classes can be associated with
a single traffic policy.
– Multiple policy maps can be nested to influence
the sequence of QoS actions.

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Configuring Policy Maps
policy-map policy-map-name

– Enters policy-map configuration mode.

– Policy maps are identified by a case-sensitive name.

class {class-name | class-default}

– Enters the per-class policy configuration mode by using the

name of a previously configured class map.
– Use the class-default name to configure the policy for the
default class.
class class-name condition

– Optionally, you can define a new class map by entering the

condition after the name of the new class map.
– Uses the match any strategy.

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Service Policy

– Where will this policy be implemented?”

– Attaches a traffic policy configured with
a policy map to an interface.
– Service policies can be applied to an
interface for inbound or outbound

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Attaching Service Policies to Interfaces

service-policy {input | output} policy-map-name

– Attaches the specified service policy

map to the input or output interface
class-map HTTP
match protocol http
policy-map PM
class HTTP
bandwidth 2000
class class-default
bandwidth 6000
interface Serial0/0
service-policy output PM

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MQC Example (Cont.)

hostname Office
class-map VoIP
match access-group 100
class-map Application Classification
match access-group 101
policy-map QoS-Policy
class VoIP
priority 100
class Application QoS Policy
bandwidth 25
class class-default
interface Serial0/0
service-policy output QoS-Policy QoS Policy on Interface
access-list 100 permit ip any any precedence 5
access-list 100 permit ip any any dscp ef
access-list 101 permit tcp any host Classification
access-list 101 permit tcp any host

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Basic Verification Commands

show class-map

– Displays the class maps

show policy-map

– Displays the policy maps

show policy-map interface type number

– Displays the applied policy map on the

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Cisco AutoQoS

– Automatically discovers applications and

provides appropriate QoS treatment
– Automatically generates initial and ongoing
QoS policies
– Provides high-level business knobs and
multidevice and domain automation for QoS
– Generates intelligent, automatic alerts and
summary reports
– Enables automatic, seamless interoperability
among all QoS features and parameters across
a network topology—LAN, MAN, and WAN

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The Features of Cisco AutoQoS

DiffServ Cisco IOS and Catalyst

Function Software QoS Feature
Classification NBAR DSCP, port Classifies VoIP based on packet
attributes or port trust
Marking Class-based marking Sets Layer 2 and Layer 3
attributes to categorize packets
into a class
Congestion Percentage-based LLQ, Provides Expedited Forwarding
management WRR treatment to voice and best-effort
treatment to data
Shaping Class-based shaping Shapes to CIR to prevent burst
or FRTS and smooth traffic to configured
Link efficiency Header compression Reduces the VoIP bandwidth
mechanism requirement
Link efficiency Link Fragmentation Reduces jitter experienced by
mechanism and Interleaving voice packets

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Cisco AutoQoS Usage Guidelines

– Make sure that:

• CEF is enabled.
• NBAR is enabled.
• Correct bandwidth statement is configured
on the interface.
– Finally, enable Cisco AutoQoS on the

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Cisco AutoQoS Example

 Enable Cisco AutoQoS on relevant devices (such as LAN

switches and WAN routers) that need to perform QoS.

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Cisco AutoQoS Example (Cont.)

interface Serial1/3
ip cef
IP CEF and Bandwidth
bandwidth 1540
ip address
auto qos voip AutoQoS for VoIP Traffic Recognized by NBAR

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SDM QoS Wizard
Cisco SDM QoS Wizard

– Cisco SDM is an intuitive, web-based

device management tool for easy and
reliable deployment and management of
Cisco IOS routers.
– Cisco SDM provides wizards for:
• Firewall and NAT
• Intrusion prevention
• IPsec VPNs
• QoS
• Routing

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QoS Features

– Cisco SDM QoS wizard provides:

• QoS policing
• Traffic monitoring
– Supported and preinstalled on Cisco 850,
870, 1800, 2800, and 3800 Cisco
Integrated Services Routers
– Supported on devices 830, 1700, 2600
XM, 2800, 3700, 7200 VXR, and 7301

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QoSImplementation Methods
QoS Implementation Methods Compared

Cisco SDM
Legacy CLI MQC QoS
Ease of
Poor Easier Simple Simple

Ability to
OK Very good Limited Limited

Time to
Longest Average Shortest Short

Modularity Poor Excellent Excellent Very good

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