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CIV234:BUILDING MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION

AND EQUIPMENTS
CIVIL ENGINEER:

•Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that


deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the
physical and naturally built environment, including works like
roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.

•Civil engineering is arguably the oldest engineering discipline.

•The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United


States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain
Alden Partridge.

•The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was


awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835.
SUB DIVISIONS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIT -1

Introduction : Classification of Building materials, Requirement of Building


materials, Properties of Building materials, Components of Building, Types
of Buildings

CEMENT : Chemical composition of cement, Manufacturing process,


Hydration of cement, Setting of cement, Tests on physical properties of
cement, Types of Portland cement and their applications, Advantages of
PPC, White cement, Expansive cements, High alumina cement, Special
cements

WATER : Qualities of water, Use of sea water for mixing concrete


Building material is any material which is used for a
construction purpose. Many naturally occurring substances,
such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have
been used to construct buildings.

Types of Building Materials.


Rocks and Stones
Structural Clay Products
Wood and Wood Products
Material for making Concrete
Puzzolanas
Mortars
Ferrous Materials
Non-Ferrous Material
Classification of Rocks:
a)Geological classification
b)Physical Classification
c)Chemical Classification

a)Geological Formation:
•Igneous Rock
•Sedimentary Rock
•Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rock

The earth’s interior has extremely high temperature.


The rocks are in molten state and are known as
magma. The rocks formed by cooling and solidifying
of magma are know as igneous rocks. Generally,
igneous rocks are strong and durable.

•Volcanic rocks
•Hyperbyssal rocks
•Plutonic rocks
Intrusive Rocks
Igneous rocks which form by the crystallization
of magma at a depth within the Earth are called
intrusive rocks. Intrusive rocks are characterized by
large crystal sizes, i.e., their visual appearance shows
individual crystals interlocked together to form the
rock mass.

The cooling of magma deep in the Earth is typically


much slower than the cooling process at the surface,
so larger crystals can grow. Rocks with visible crystals
of roughly the same size are said to have
a phaneritic texture.
Extrusive Rocks:

Igneous rocks which form by the crystallization


of magma at the surface of the Earth are called
extrusive rocks. They are characterized by fine-
grained textures because their rapid cooling at or
near the surface did not provide enough time for
large crystals to grow.

Rocks with this fine-grained texture are


called aphanitic rocks. The most common extrusive
rock is basalt.
Volcanic rocks are formed at the earth’s surface due to the cooling af
magma spilled out by volcanoes. As the cooling process is fast these
rocks are extremely fine grained and glossy. Basalt and trap are
example of volcanic rocks.

Hyperbyssal rocks are formed due to the cooling of magma at a


shallow depth from the earth’s surface. Cooling is relatively slow.
Hence these rocks have a fine grained crystalline structure. Quartz,
dolerite, and gneiss are example of such rocks.

Plutonic rocks are formed due to slow cooling of magma at a


considerable depth from the earth’s surface. These rocks are very
strong and have a crystalline structure. Granite and diorite are
examples of plutonic rocks
Composition

Mode of
Felsic Intermediate Mafic Ultramafic
occurrence

Intrusive Granite Diorite Gabbro Pegmatite & Peridotite

Extrusive Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Komatiite


Granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Pegmatite
Peridotite
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Pumice
Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphic rocks are those which have been changed


from one form to another by the high pressure and
temperature environment of the Earth. "Metamorphism"
means the process of changing form.

The changes can be applied to


either sedimentary or igneous rock. Lutgens and Tarbuck
provide a useful table of some of the varieties of
metamorphic rock.
Metamorphic Parent
Texture Description
rock rock
Slate Foliated Shale Very fine grained
Fine-to-medium
Phyllite Foliated Shale
grained
Coarse-grained
Shale, granitic and
Schist Foliated micaceous
volcanic rocks
minerals
Shale, granitic and Coarse-grained,
Gneiss Foliated
volcanic rocks non-micaceous
Composed of
Limestone,
Marble Nonfoliated interlocking
dolostone
calcite grains
Composed of
Quartzite Nonfoliated Quartz sandstone interlocking
quartz grains
Any fine-grained
Hornfels Nonfoliated Fine-grained
material

Mixture
Composed of
Migmatite Weakly foliated of granitic and mafic
contorted layers
rocks

Hard, fine-grained
Mylonite Weakly foliated Any material
rock

Quartz-rich Strongly stretched


Metaconglomerate Weakly foliated
conglomerate pebbles

Amphibolite Weakly foliated Mafic volcanic rocks Coarse-grained


Foliated metamorphic rocks such
as gneiss, phyllite, schist, and slate have a layered or
banded appearance that is produced by exposure to
heat and directed pressure.

Non-foliated metamorphic rocks such


as hornfels, marble, quartzite, and novaculite do not
have a layered or banded appearance.
Gneiss
Phyllite
Schist
Slate
Hornfels
Marble
Quartzite
Novaculite
Sedimentary Rocks:

•Weathering processes break down rock into finer


and finer material and such material is often
transported and deposited as sediment. The
processes of compaction and cementation of this
sediment over a long period of time turn the
sediment into rock. The formation of rock in this way
is termed "lithification".

•Sedimentary rocks are divided into two broad


classes, Classtic or detrital sedimentary rocks and
chemical sedimentary rocks
•Detrital sedimentary rocks are those for
which the material has been transported as
solid particles. The particles themselves may
have derived from either physical weathering
or chemical weathering.

•Sedimentation means settling from a fluid,


either water or air. The texture of sedimentary
rocks is described as "clastic", meaning that
they are composed of discrete particles that
are compacted and cemented together.
Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
Sediment name
Description Rock Name
and particle size
Rounded rock fragments Conglomerate
Gravel (>2 mm)
Angular rock fragments Brecia

Quartz predominates Quartz sandstone

Quartz with
Arkose
considerable feldspar
Sand (1/16 to 2 mm)
Dark color, quartz with
considerable feldspar, Graywacke
clay and rocky fragments
Splits into thin layers Shale
Mud (<1/16 mm) Breaks into clumps or
Mudstone
blocks
•Chemical sedimentary rocks derive from material
that is carried in solution to lakes and seas. If the
solute precipitates out of the solution to form
chemical sediments, rocks such as limestone can be
formed.

•Chemical sedimentary rock forms when mineral


constituents in solution become supersaturated and
inorganically precipitate. Common chemical
sedimentary rocks include oolitic limestone and rocks
composed of evaporite minerals, such as halite (rock
salt), sylvite, bariteand gypsum.
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Group Texture Composition Rock Name
Clastic* or
calcite, CaCO3 Limestone
nonclastic
Dolomite,
Nonclastic Dolostone
CaMg(CO3)2
Inorganic Microcrystalline q
Nonclastic Chert
uartz, SiO2
Nonclastic Halite, NaCl Rock salt
gypsum,
Nonclastic Rock gypsum
CaSO4.2H2O
Clastic or
calcite, CaCO3 Limestone
nonclastic
Microcrystalline q
Biochemical Nonclastic Chert
uartz, SiO2
Altered plant
Nonclastic Coal
remains
Coal
Dolomite
Iron Ore
Limestone
Sandstone
Siltstone
Conglomerate
End of Slides

Upcoming Lecture
Structural Clay Products
Wood and Wood Products