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Semester Ganjil

• Paper & Presentation : 20%

• Mid Test : 30%

• Final Test : 50%

Pertemuan 1
• Pengenalan konsep dasar komputasi dan
komunikasi multimedia.
• Menyajikan beberapa contoh aplikasi.
• Menjelaskan klasifikasi sistem
• Pengembangan sistem multimedia
Capaian Pembelajaran
• Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan Pengenalan
konsep dasar komputasi dan komunikasi
• Mahasiswa dapat Menjelaskan klasifikasi
sistem multimedia.
• Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan perkembangan
system multimedia terdistribusi.
• Mahasiswa dapat Menyajikan beberapa
contoh aplikasi.



Merupakan berbagai jenis pembawa

berupa : data alphanumerik, image,
audio dan video
Klasifikasi Media berdasarkan relasi
dengan waktu :

1. Media Statis : tidak mempunyai dimensi

contoh : alphanumeric data, grafis,
gambar tetap.

2. Media dynamis : mempunyai dimensi

contoh : animasi, audio, video.
Contoh Untuk Media Dinamis :
– Untuk persepsi pergerakan yang halus, video
harus di played back pada 25 frames atau 30
frames, ( depending on the video system used)
per second.
– Untuk play back a recorded voice message or
music, only one playback rate is natural or
• Playback at a slower or faster rate distorts the meaning
or the quality of the sound.
• Because these media must be played back continuously
at a fixed rate, they are often called continuous media.
They are also called isochronous media because of the
fixed relationship between each media unit and time.
Sistem Multimedia

• There is no universally agreed definition for

multimedia systems.
• From the linguistic point of view, any system
capable of handling more than one medium
should be called a multimedia system.
– Under this definition, a computer system capable
of handling alphanumeric data and graphics can
be called a multimedia system.
– In this book, we define multimedia systems as
capable of handling at least one type of
continuous media in digital form as well as static
– This definition makes multimedia systems more
useful, challenging, and interesting.
– So when we say multimedia information, we mean
a combination of multiple media types with at
least one continuous medium.
Fungsi Sistem Multimedia
Aspek Sistem Multimedia
• Aspek Komunikasi :
– Capturing, transmisi, dan presentasi informasi
• Aspek Komputasi :
– Processing of multimedia information such as
searching, retrieval, recognition, and
multimedia compression itself is a computing
process, but it is often carried out for the
purpose of communication.
Generasi sistem multimedia
• Hanya melakukan
pentransmisian data multimedia
Generasi Pertama dari satu computer ke lainnya
dan menyajikan data ke user.

• Juga melakukan computing

processes, such as comparison,
Generasi Kedua searching, real-time image
restoration, audio, and image

Saat ini teknologi multimedia

telah mengintegrasikan
computing dan
Istilah Multimedia
• Word multimedia as a noun is used to refer to
multiple types of media, technologies, systems
and applications handling various media.
• multimedia as an adjective, so we will
specifically say multimedia information,
multimedia data, multimedia system,
multimedia communications, multimedia
applications, and so forth.
• Multimedia data refers to the computer
readable representation of multiple media
• Multimedia information refers to the
information conveyed by multiple media
• Sometime, multimedia information and
multimedia data are used interchangeably.
Representasi Digital
• Pada sistem multimedia, semua media dalam
bentuk digital.
• Keuntungan menggunkan representasi digital :
• Sistem computer hanya menangani data digital.
• Interaksi antara media digital dg sistem komputer
mudah dilakukan.
• Keamanan komunikasi mudah dilakukan dalam
hal encrypt sinyal digital dari pada sinyal analog.
• Sistem digital lebih reliable karena lebih tolerable
terhadap noise dibanding analog.
Effect noise pada transmisi signal
Motivasi Penggunaan Data Multimedia pada
Sistem Komputer

• Untuk memperbaiki pentransferan informasi

multimedia dengan melibatkan banyak
participant secara serentak dengan
menggunakan lebih dari satu indera.
Tujuan komputasi dan komunikasi
• Untuk mengemulate komunikasi manusia dan
membantu manusia mengorganizing dan
mengelola vast amounts of information in
various media types.
• Human face-to-face communication uses a
variety of senses. It is an effective multimedia
communication, involving auditory and visual
System Multimedia
• Standalone : use dedicated system
resources. The amount of multimedia
information may be limited and multimedia
data communications is not supported.
• Distributed : share both system resources
and information resources and can support
communication among users.
Conversational services
Conversational services berupa interaksi
antara pengguna dengan pengguna lainnya
atau system.
Contoh :
1. interpersonal services such as
videoconference and videophony.
2. telesurveillance services dan
Messaging services.

Messaging services cover the non-

real-time or asynchronous exchange
of multimedia data through
electronic mailboxes.
Retrieval services.

Retrieval services cover all types of

access to multimedia information
Typically, the user sends a request to the
server and the requested information is
delivered to the user in real time.
Contoh : VOD .
Distribution services.
• Distribution services cover services
where the information is distributed
on the initiative of a server.
– Contoh : TV program broadcast.
Aplikasi Multimedia
Video/Movie on Demand

Information on Demand



Videophone and Videoconference

Cooperative Work
Video/Movie on Demand
• Currently, we watch TV programs and movies
passively, we cannot interact with the programs
and cannot control the time we want to watch
– Video/movie on demand services are being developed to
overcome these limitations and provide other
– In VOD, large collections of video are stored on video
servers. Users or clients access these videos through a
Features VOD:
• Televisi tersambung dengan server Video.
• Beberapa Server saling terhubung.
• Kita dapat menonton video atau film favorit
kapanpun yang kita inginkan.
• We can pause and fast-forward and backward. We
may also be able to search for a particular scene.
• Jaminan high quality because video is stored in
digital form.
Information on Demand

• Systemnya sama dengan VOD kecuali IOD

stores other types of information .
• Users issue queries through a user interface
possibly on the advanced television or a
general-purpose workstation, and the system
searches, retrieves, and presents relevant
information to the user.
• The most important ability of the system is
indexing and searching vast amounts of
multimedia information.
Aplikasi IOD systems :
• Acting as a general encyclopedia of general
• Providing newspaper and magazine online
• Providing home shopping service;
• Providing current information on weather,
public transport time tables, and the like on-
• People learn more and more readily when
they can see, hear, and work with new
concepts, which makes multimedia a natural
way for training and education.
• Most current multimedia education and
training courseware is run on standalone
machines with materials stored on CDROMs
that cannot be shared by other users.
• This will change when multimedia servers on
the wide area network (WAN) are available.
These servers will allow clients to share
storage, courseware, and other multimedia
Multimedia- Applications

In training
Keuntungan :
• courseware digunakan bersama oleh client shg
lebih murah.
• Menyenangkan bagi “students” karena dpt belajar
dimanapun dan kapanpun.
• Materi ajar dapat dynamically organized to suit
each student, so each student can learn at his or
her own style and pace.
• interaction with teachers will be possible through e-
mail and live audio and video communication.
• Telemedicine is another important multimedia
application, especially in emergency cases and
remote locations.
• In telemedicine, all patient records are stored
• Medical institutions and equipment are
connected through a multimedia network.
Multimedia- Applications

In Medicine

Cardiac Imaging,
YALE centre for
advanced cardiac

Telemedicine provides the
• Instant consultation with remote medical
experts through the use of high-quality audio
and video;
• Access to patients’ records anywhere and
anytime by medical personnel in case of
• Worldwide access of information such as
availability of and need for a special type of
blood or organs.
Videophone and Videoconference
• Sistem Videophone dan videoconference
memungkinkan komunikasi antar user melalui
transmisi audio dan video.
• Videoconference systems use dedicated specific
machines and circuit-switched networks. They
are expensive and not easily available.
• Saat ini video available pada desktop
workstation windows, communicating over a
general-purpose packet-switched network.
Videophones will be as common as current
Cooperative Work
• A sophisticated videoconference system will
support cooperative work: people far apart will be
able to work on the same project through
transparent multimedia information transmission
among them.
• They will be able to access multimedia databases
and other resources easily. This is an ultimate goal
of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW).

• Multimedia data have a time dimension and must be transmitted, processed and
presented in a fixed rate in most applications, so the multimedia computing and
communications system must meet this timeliness requirement.
• Multimedia applications normally use multiple related media simultaneously. The
temporal and spatial relationships among these media must be maintained.
• Multimedia data are data intensive, so they must be compressed, and high-speed
communications networks and powerful computers are required to handle them.
• Multimedia data do not have obvious syntax and semantics. Conventional database
management systems cannot effectively handle them. Techniques for indexing,
retrieval, and recognition of multimedia information are needed.
• These and other characteristics and requirements of multimedia data are
generalized into a notion called quality of service (QOS), which must be satisfied by
a multimedia system. To provide QOS guarantees to applications is just one aspect
of the central issue of multimedia technology.
• Define multimedia systems. Explain the rationale for your
• Why is it preferred that all media information should be
represented in digital form in distributed multimedia systems?
• What are the most important applications of multimedia
computing and communications? Why? Can these applications be
realized using current workstations and networks? Why?
• There are many multimedia applications, but most of them are
based on some common multimedia system capabilities. Describe
these common capabilities.
• What are the four classes of networked multimedia systems?
Describe operations of these four classes.
• Kelompok 1 : Konsep dasar komputasi dan
komunikasi multimedia.
• Kelompok 2 : Klasifikasi sistem multimedia.
• Kelompok 3 : Perkembangan system
multimedia terdistribusi.
• Kelompok 4 : Aplikasi Komputasi dan
Komunikasi Multimedia.
Pertemuan Berikutnya
Pertemuan 2
• The basic characteristics and system requirements of
digital audio, video and image.
• Properties of analog audio signals, the process of
converting analog signals to digital signals, and digital
representations of common audio applications.
• Digital representation of video and images .
• introduces the QOS concept which is central to any
multimedia computing and communications system.
Pertemuan 3
• In this chapter we discuss various compression
techniques and standards for digital audio,
images, and video.
Pertemuan 4
End-to-End QOS Guarantee
• networking and end-system support for digital
audio and video. Networking includes
underlying networks and application-oriented
transport protocols.
• An end system includes the following
important components: hardware
architecture, operating system, and storage
server. multimedia server, and multimedia
Pertemuan 5
Network Support for Multimedia
• network technologies are suitable for
multimedia communications and look at the
technical aspects of these technologies.
Pertemuan 6
Transport Protocols
• Design issues of multimedia transport
Pertemuan 7
• The multimedia end-system architecture,
including hardware and operating systems.
Multimedia Servers
• Special aspect of multimedia servers.
Networked Multimedia
• Identify synchronization requirements and
problems, to provide a survey of mechanisms
used to achieve multimedia synchronization
and to show that a system approach should be
taken to achieve the required multimedia
Topik :
1. Introduction of the course;
2. Overview of Multimedia Computing and Communications;;
3. Digital Representation of Audio, Image and Video;;
4. Characteristics and Requirements of Multimedia Data;
5. Multimedia Data Compression;
6. End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantee for Digital Audio
and Video Communication;
7. Network Support for Multimedia Communication;
8. Transport Protocol Support for Multimedia Communications;
9. End- System Support for Distributed Multimedia
10.Networked Multimedia Synchronization: Requirement
and Mechanisms
Digitization, Convergence, and

We can digitize anything you can read, see or

hear; put it online in a standardized format; and
provide worldwide access any time or place.
Layered Information
Common Issues in Multimedia Computing
1. Storage and Bandwidth Requirements
2. Delay and Delay Jitter Requirements
3. Semantic Structure of Multimedia
4. Error and Loss Tolerance in Multimedia Data
5. Quality of Service (QoS)
6. Security, copyright & law
1. Define multimedia systems. Explain the
rationale for your definition.
2. Why is it preferred that all media information
should be represented in digital form in
distributed multimedia systems?
3. What are the most important applications of
multimedia computing and communications?
Why? Can these applications be realized
using current workstations and networks?
1. There are many multimedia applications, but
most of them are based on some common
multimedia system capabilities. Describe
these common capabilities.
2. What are the four classes of networked
multimedia systems? Describe operations of
these four classes.