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LEARNING CURVE

Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V

Over
learning
Peak period

proficiency
False
plateau

Increasing
Returns

Discouraging
first stage
PURPOSE OF LEARNING Unconscious
Competence

Conscious
Competence

Conscious
Incompetence

The Competence
Unconscious Stepladder
Incompetence
Learning Vs. Understanding
• Borrowed, taken from • Your own original
others experience
• Gives you knowledge • Gives you wisdom
• Comes from outside
• Comes from inside (may be
triggered from outside)
• Possible even for
unintelligent, even • Possible only to your
mentally retarded, even intelligence
animals
• Needs good memory • Needs intelligence
• Learned things you may • Never forgotten
forget
• An uncreative act • Very very creative act
Training Quintet

SENIOR
MANAGEMENT

TRAINING LINE
MANAGER MANAGER

LEARNER

TRAINER
Training Cycle

Source of figure: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2003)


TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
Steps from Need Identification to
Developing Instruction:
Assess Training Needs

Determine General Content

Determine Detailed Content

Design Instruction
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
1.Common Ways:
• Complain from staff
• Complain from customers/clients
• Poor quality of work
• Frequent errors
• Over handling items
• Inadequate recruiting process
• Large staff turnover
• Performance date not met
• Conflicts among staff
• New equipment/systems
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
1.Common Ways (contd..):
• Accident reports
• Company plan, policy or projections
• Exit interviews
• Legislation
• Error rates
• Absenteeism
• Quality control reports
• Market research reports
• Performance appraisals
• Observation
• Testing
• Job analysis
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
2. Information to be Collected:
Job roles
Job process
Task list
Job problems
Task frequency
Task difficulty
Task importance
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR
MAKING OTHERS TO UNDERSTAND
PROCEED FROM TO
• SIMPLE COMPLEX
• CONCRETE ABSTRACT
• GENERAL SPECIFIC
• KNOWN UNKNOWN
AND
ARRANGE FOR FREQUENT REINFORCEMENT
SESSION PLAN
Structuring Session Plan:
1. Timing
2. Content (What is to be taught)
3. Training Technique
4. Training Activity
5. Aids required

Keep in mind participants’ learning


priorities:
Could Know
Should Know
Must Know
Template for preparing a Training Outline
1. Preparation
(A) After training the participants will be able to:
(B) I will prepare myself physically & mentally by:
(C) I will need the following materials:
(D) I will prepare the training environment by:
(E) I will prepare the trainees by:

2. Presentation/Demonstration Outline
(Define your learning objectives using the whole-
part-whole approach. Each objective should have a
separate outline.)
Template for preparing a Training Outline
3. Tryout
I will have trainees practice each of these
tasks: During tryout I will:
4. Follow-up
If there are problems, trainees should contact:

I will check back every______ hours for_____


days, _____weeks, _______months.

I will evaluate the effectiveness of my training


efforts by:
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
__
How People Learn (Myers – Briggs Frame)
EXTROVERT INTROVERT
• Like to experiment • Like to reflect on new skills
• Learn through action • Enjoy enriching inner life
• Learn with others • Stressed by action/interaction
• Emphasis on tangible • May surprise through insights
• Thrive on feedback • Acquire new ideas/information
EVIDENCE SEEKING CONCEPT-LOVING
• Like proof, examples, demonstration • Enjoy new ideas for own sake
• Unimpressed by theory and new-fangled ideas • Like concept, pattern, links
• Like theory even jargons
• Interested in future possibility than in past events
• Take things on trust
• Either turn up as dilettante or enthusiastic innovators

LOGIC-LED VALUES-DRIVEN
• Learn more with “heads” • Learn more with “hearts”
• Detached and tough minded • Emotionally bound-up with learning
• Focus on analytical rigour • Concerned about people’s feeling
• Concerned about task • Disturbed by conflict
• Search for intellectual credibility • Search for ethical credibility
STRUCTURED FLUID
• Like to know where they are going, get there, and then • Like to pick things up opportunistically
know where they have been • Enjoy a certain amount of chaos and spontaneity
• Like clearly stated objectives, specific action planning • Enjoy the process, the journey
sessions etc. • Prepared to take output on trust, provided process is
interesting.
TRAINING/LEARNING METHODOLOGIES
STRUCTURED LESS STRUCTURED
LECTURE- SEMINARS,
DISCUSSION SYNDICATES
CASE METHODS
PROGRAMMED PROBLEM TEACHING/
CONTENT LEARNING CONSENSUS TRAINING
ORIENTED BRAIN-STORMING EMPHASIS

ROLE PLAY SENSITIVITY


STRUCTURED TRAINING
EXERCISES IN H.R. (L-GROUP, T-
LEARNING/
IN-BASKET GROUP,…..)
PROCESS INSIGHT/
BUSINESS GAME
AWARENESS
ORIENTED LAB METHODS
EMPHASIS

INSTRUCTED PARTICIPANT
CENTERED CENTERED
TRAINING METHODS
• ASSIGNMENTS • DEMONSTRATION
• BRAINSTORMING • DICUSSION GUIDED
• BUSINESS GAMES • DISCUSSION:
• CASE STUDIES PROBLEM SOLVING
• COACHING • FIELD TRIP
• COMPUTER- • GROUP EXERCISES
BASED TRAINING • GUIDED PRACTICE
• COUNSELLING • GUIDED READING
TRAINING METHODS
• INTERACTIVE • PROJECT:
VIDEO INDIVIDUAL
• IN-TRAY • ROLE PLAYING
EXERCISE
• LECTURE • SEMINAR
• LESSON • SIMULATION
• MENTORING • SKILLS DEV. :
• PROGRAMMED EXERCISES
LEARNING • TUTORIAL
• PROJECT GROUP
Benefits of Internal & External Deliverers:
INTERNAL EXTERNAL
• Underline the origin • Bring knowledge of
other organisations
• Seen as colleagues, ‘in • Are seen as outsiders,
it’, with the participants with no axe to grind
• Perceived as ‘available’
(hence appreciated and • Perceived as
not ‘expensive’ (hence
resented) listened to)
• Seen as having channels
of communication and • Are seen as neutral
influence with
management
Training Evaluation: A Session
Reactionnaire-Rate and Express
Why Have You Rated So?
• Interesting Boring
• Clear Confusing
• Simple Complicated
• Time too short Too long
• Visual aids good Aids poor
• Session be retained Be omitted
• Learned a lot Learned little
Training Evaluation: A Session Reactionnaire-Rate
and Express Why Have You Rated So? Contd…

• Confirmed usefully Confirmed little


• Pace too fast Too slow
• Interaction good: Poor
within group
• Interaction good: Poor
with trainer
• Have no problems Lot of problems
Training Evaluation: Daily Review

• What have you learned today?


• What helped that learning?
• Was there anything that hindered learning?
If so, please describe it fully.
• On Which you would have liked to spend more time?
• Was there anything that you did not understand/agree
with?
• Any comments?
Some Spot Checks

A. Speed– Speedometer TF TS

F S
Too slow/slow/Just
JR
right/Fast/Too Fast

B. Enjoyment Warm
Friendly
Thermometer Businesslike
Cool
Unsupportive
Hostile
C. Satisfaction
Happy faces
TRAINING EVALUATION

• Before the programme:


(close to training needs identification by training
quintet)
• At the start of the programme:
(knowledge / skill assessment or self- assessment)
• During the programme- interim review:
Daily review questionnaire
Less traditional forms
Three-word reviews
spot checks
session reviews
TRAINING EVALUATION
• At the end of the programme:
Validation questionnaire
Action plan format
• After the training programme:
Follow-up questionnaire
Critical incident dairy
long-term evaluation
Evaluation Designs
Post-Measure

Pre-/Post- Evaluation
Measure Design

Pre-/Post-
Measure with
Control Group
Evaluation Designs
• Evaluation Designs
– One-shot post-test only design:
TRAIN → MEASURE
– One-group pretest-posttest design:
MEASURE → TRAIN → MEASURE
– Pretest-posttest control-group design:
Control: MEASURE → NO TRAIN → MEASURE
Training: MEASURE → TRAIN →
MEASURE
Training Evaluation

Source of figure: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2003)


HRD Outcomes Variables
• More Competent People
• Better Developed Roles
• Higher Work-Commitment & Job Involvement
• More Problem Solving
• Better Utilization of Human Resources
• Better Generation of Internal Resources
• Better Organizational Health
• More Teamwork, Synergy and Respect for
Each Other
HRD Aims & Practices: Where are the gaps? (e.g.)

1. Top management believes that HR are their most important asset yet
they do not seen to do much to develop HR.
2. Training is imparted rather seriously but employees are not assigned
tasks related to the areas in which they are trained.
3. Environment appears to be open for expression of feeling but not for
feedback.
4. HRD requires “I am OK, you are OK” type but employees in general
seem to be “I am OK, you aren’t OK” type.
5. Organisations convey employees of their “good intentions” but are yet
to convince their employees of their “good intentions”.