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Department Of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
Name : Ch Jyothi
Designation : Senior Lecturer
Branch : Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Institute : Government Polytechnic, Proddatur
Year/Semester : IV Semester
Subject : A C Machines I
Code No : EE402
Topic : Single Phase Transformers
Duration : 50 Minutes
Sub Topic : Constructional details of Transformers
Teaching Aids : Photos & Diagrams
Revised by : D.Linga Reddy, HEES J.N.Govt.polytechnic, Hyd
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In the previous class, we have learnt


• Working principle of transformer

• Features of transformer

• Classification of transformer


On completion of this period, you should be able to

• Understand the constructional details of transformer

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Transformer Construction
What are the Basic Parts of a Transformer?

• Magnetic core

• Windings or coils

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Magnetic core

The core material and its

construction should be such that

• Maximum flux is created

• With minimum magnetizing


• With minimum core loss

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Magnetic Core Contd…

Core consists of two

Limbs or legs
• The vertical portion
on which windings
or coils are wound
are called limbs
• The top and bottom
horizontal portions
are called as yokes
of the core
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Magnetic Core Contd…
• Yokes connect the limbs
and serve for closing the
magnetic circuit
• In two limbed core the
cross-sectional area of the
limbs and the yokes are
• In three limbed core
windings are placed around
the central limb also known
as main limb

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Magnetic Core Contd…
• In all types of
transformers the
core is made of
steel having silicon
• High silicon content
reduces the
hysterisis loss
• Core is laminated to
reduce the eddy
current losses

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Magnetic Core Contd…

• To reduce the losses further

cold rolled grain oriented
silicon steel laminations are
• Laminations are insulated
from each other by light coat
of varnish or by an oxide

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Magnetic Core Contd…

• The laminations are cut in the form of E & I

OR L & 7

• To avoid high reluctance at the joints the

laminations are butted against each other
and alternate layers are inverted

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Transformer Construction

Windings or coils

• The transformer has high

voltage and low voltage
coils for each phase

• The coils may be either

cylindrical concentric or
sand witched type

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Windings Contd…

Concentric coils
• Concentric coils are used in
core-type transformers

• The two windings are wound on

two different limbs

• For this type-leakage flux will

be more

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Concentric Coils contd..

• To reduce the leakage flux the

two windings are wound on the
same limb and on both the

• The positioning of the HV & LV

windings with respect to the
core is very important for
insulation requirement

Concentric Core contd..

• The low voltage winding is

placed near the core
because it is easier to
insulate from the core

• The high voltage windings

are placed after it

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Sand-witched coils

• Sand witched coils are

commonly used for shell type
• Leakage reactance of the
windings can be easily
• Leakage flux can be further
reduced by subdividing the HV &
LV coils

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Sand-witched coils contd..

• High voltage coils lie between

the two low voltage coils
• The two low voltage coils are the
ends have half the turns of low
voltage coils and these coils are
called half coils

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we have discussed about

• The basic parts of a transformer

• Core

• Winding

• Classification of Transformer

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1) The core is divided into

a) Limb & Windings

b) Yoke & Windings

c) Yoke & Limbs

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2) Core is laminated to reduce……….. Losses

a) Hysteresis losses

b) Eddy current losses

c) Both (a) & (b)

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3) Transformer core is made of………… material

a) Silicon steel

b) Iron

c) Both (a) & (b)

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4) Concentric coils are used in core type of


a) True

b) False

c) Neither

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5) Sand witched coils are used in shell type


a) True

b) False

c) Neither

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Frequently Asked Questions

1) Explain the constructional details of a


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