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(Cucurbitaficifolia) ENRICHED BISCUITS
Traditional vegetables are valuable sources of
nutrients , with some having important medicinal
properties (Hilou et al. 2006). It plays an important
role in the balanced diet and advised to intake more
that may reduce the risk of diseases like cancer,
coronary heart attack, diabetes E.T.C (Aregheore
2012; Stangeland et al 2009. Kenya has a natural
abundance of indigenous edible vegetables species
which are inexpensive to produce and well adapted to
the environments which they are grown. Consumers
neglect them because of the association of leafy
vegetables with poor rural lifestyles, which means
they are often regarded as a low-status food.
Despite the fact that indigenous vegetable has been in use
for a long period of time in Kenya, little research has been
done regarding the bioavailability of their macro and
micro nutrients of these indigenous vegetables grown in
Nyeri, Kenya. Their utilization could improve cereal based
diet and thus reduces nutrient deficiencies among the
populations. Optimization of nutrient content in the daily
diet is important in alleviating nutritional deficiencies.
Thus present study is carried to determine the nutritional
composition of these vegetables both fresh and dried, and
formulation of a product that meets the recommended
dietary allowance.
Fig-leaf gourd (Cucurbitaficifolia) has been in use as
indigenous vegetables for several years in Kenya. It serves
as an ingredient in preparation of a local delicacy popular
in Central Kenya known as mukimo. Some people use it as
a leafy vegetables in which it is served together with a
local delicacy known as ugali.Therefore the study provides
information on the levels of macro and micro nutrients of
fig-leaf gourd (Cucurbitaficifolia) that provides nutrients
for the community. It will also providean enriched product
rich in macro and micro nutrients. This will help in meeting
the nutritional needs of the community, help to increase
the income of the community and thus motivate the
1. General objective
To determine the proximate composition and
anti-nutrients of fig leaf gourd dried leaves,
prepare wheat flour biscuits from enriched
from fig leaf gourd leaves and determine
physicochemical properties, proximate
compositionand consumer acceptability.
2. Specific objectives
 Determine proximate composition e.g. ash, moisture,
protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrates, energy content and
mineral content ; Sodium, calcium, potassium, iron,
magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc of seeds, fruit and
leaf of fig leaf guard grown in Nyeri, Kenya.
 Determine anti nutrients composition of the leaves, seeds
and fruits of fig leaf gourd grown in Nyeri, Kenya
 Development of fig leaf gourd enriched corn flour
porridge using dried powdered fig-leaf gourd leaves.
 Proximate composition and mineral analysis of fig-leaf
gourd enriched biscuits
 Determine the physico-chemical properties of fig leaf
gourd enriched biscuits
 Determination of consumer acceptability of fig leaf gourd
enriched biscuits.
1. The Importance of Indigenous Green Leafy
Green leafy vegetables are a important source of
food and are considered excellent sources of the
essential nutrients. In recent years, nutritionists have
strongly emphasized their use in the human diet due
to their health-giving qualities (Salunkhe and Desai,
Potential health related functions of indigenous
vegetables include antibiosis, immune stimulation,
nervous system action, detoxification, anti-
inflammatory, anti-gout, antioxidant, gycemic and
hypolipidemic properties.
2. Fig-leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia)
Fig-leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia) leaves are used
together with mash potatoes and consumption with
starchy foods. It is a climbing plant with stem which
have tendrils, and prickly hair (Figure 2.1). Its leaves
are hairy, light green, up to 10 cm long. The plant
has yellow flowers.
3. Indigenous vegetables preservation
One way of mitigating drought and famine caused
by climate change is by improving post-harvest
handling, processing to overcome perishability
constraints and ensuring continued high quality food
Several methods of vegetable preservation are available
and these include, sun drying, solar drying, canning,
vacuum packing, minimal processing, refrigeration,
freezing and irradiation (Kumar et al., 2010).
4. Blanching
Heat-treatment, a short heat treatment prior to
processing or preservation aims at inactivating enzymes
in the vegetables. It can be done either by immersion in
hot water or spraying steam. Dehydrated vegetables are
blanched prior to drying in order to arrest undesirable
enzyme action and that the dried products will refresh
more readily.
Blanching before drying, gives dried products of tender
cooking character, better flavor and better keeping
quality. Blanching by steam, results in lower leaching
losses and greater cleanliness than blanching by hot
5. Dehydration of Vegetables
The primary objectives in removing water
from any food material are to reduce its
weight and bulk, leading to economical
transportation, handling and distribution; and
to improve its keeping quality by reducing the
water activity (aw).
In the process of drying some nutrients such
as beta-carotene is known to be susceptible to
degradation upon exposure to heat and light
(Nawiri et al., 2012). There is need to establish
a method of drying with minimal loss.
6. Packaging
Combined with improved traditional methods of
processing, packaging of foods can reduce
wastage and lengthen storage life (FAO, 1969).
The aim of packaging foods is to protect them
against spoilage, preserve their quality and
provide convenience of handling.
7. Rehydration of Dried Foods
The quality of dried product is reflected not only
in its texture, flavor and color, but also in its
ability to rehydrate as closely as possible to the
original raw material. The rehydration efficiency
is determined by preparation and the method of
1. Collection of wild vegetables
The fresh Cucumisficifolia (fig-leaf gourd)
leaves will be purchased from the local
market.The samples will be placed in
perforated self-sealing polythene bags to
maintain their freshness. They will be labeled
and taken to laboratory.
Sample preparation
1.Wash with tap water. 2.Wash with distilled water 3. Wash with deionized water.

5. Keep the vegetables in a desiccator. 6. Chop the vegetables into small pieces 7.Crush the vegetables into fine pow
8Keep the resultant powder in air tight packet

Nutritional analysis of wild vegetables

The nutritional composition of the powdered vegetable sample was analyzed
as follows in the laboratory following the standard food analysis methods
described in the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC).
Determination of moisture content
Moisture content was determined by oven drying method as the loss in weight
due to evaporation from sample at (1000C). The weight loss in each case
represented the amount of moisture present in the sample.
Moisture (%) =[ ( Weight of original sample – Weight of dried sample )/Weight
of original sample] x 100
• Determination of crude protein
The crude protein content was determined following the micro
Kjeldahl method. Percentage of nitrogen was calculated using the
following equation;
Nitrogen (%) = [(S-B) xNx0.014xDx100]/ (Weight of sample x V),
Where, D is Dilution factor, T is Titration value=(S-B), W is weight of
sample, 0.014 is the constant value rude protein was obtained by
multiplying the corresponding total nitrogen content by a
conventional factor of 6.25.
• Determination of crude fat
Crude fat was determined by the Soxhlet extraction technique.
Crude fat (%)= Weight of fat in sample x 100/Weight of dry sample
Determination of ash content
Ash content was determined by combusting the samples in a muffle
furnace at 600°C for 8hours.
Ash content = Weight of ash x 100/Weight of sample.
Determination of crude fiber
The bulk of roughage in food is referred to as the fiber is called crude
fiber. Milled sample was dried, defatted with ethanol acetone mixture
and then the experiment was carried out using the standard method
Crude fiber (%) = (Weight of residue – Weight of ash) x 100/Weight of
Determination of carbohydrate
Carbohydrate content was estimated by the difference method.
Carbohydrate (%) = 100 – [Moisture (%) + Fat (%) +Protein (%) + Ash (%)]
Determination of total energy
Total energy (kcal/100g) = (%Available carbohydrates x 4.1) + (% Protein
x 4.1) + (%Fat x 9.3)
Determination of minerals
Minerals and heavy metals of the sample were determined by atomic
absorption spectrophotometer, flame emission spectrophotometer and
UV spectrophotometer.
Determination of anti-nutrient
1. Phytic acid.
The extractions and precipitation of the phytin in the samples will be done by the method of
wheeler and Ferrel, (1971) while iron in the precipitate will be determined as described by
Makower (1970).
2. Tannin (Polyphenols)
The vegetable samples, finely milled (250mg in 10ml of 70% aqueous acetone) will be
extracted for 2hrs at 30oC using Gallenkamp orbital shaker (Survey, UK).
3 Hydrocyanic acid (HCN)
The cyanogenic potential of the samples will be determined (after an initial extraction for
2-3 min of 5-8g material in 0.1M H3PO4 by a 2M H2SO4) (100oC for 50mins) hydrolysis
followed by reaction with chloramines, pyridine barbituric acid and dried over concentrated
H2SO4 .
4 Oxalate
Oxalate content will be determined by the titrimetric method of Moir (1953) as modified
by Ranjhan and Krishna (1980).
5 Saponin
The method used will be that of Obadoni and Ochuko, (2001). The saponin content is
calculated as mg/100g
Wheat flour 100g,Sugar three table
spoons,Salt ½ teaspoon,one cup of
water,Butter 1 table spoon,Fig-leaf gourd flour
three treatments (i=10g, 20g, 30g) and two
• Procedure
Weighing Mixing Molding Cutting
Baking Cooling
Determination of Proximate Composition of biscuits
The protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture contents
will bedetermined using the method (AOAC, 2005),
while the carbohydrate is determined by difference
using the method of (Egounlety, 2001), by subtracting
the total sum of the percentage of fat, moisture, ash,
crude fibre, and protein content from hundred (100).

Determination of Physical Properties of Biscuits

Biscuits diameter (D) and thickness (T) will be
determined using verniercalipers, while biscuits weight
determined using an electronic weighing balance
(Mettler PE160 Balance, Switzerland). Spread ratio will
be expressed as diameter/thickness (D/T) (McWatters
et al., 2003).

Twenty-four hours after preparation of the biscuits,

sensory evaluation will carried out. A total of 20
panelists who will be familiar with the quality
attributes of the biscuits will be recruited from staff
and students of the Department of Food Science
and Technology, University of Dedan Kimathi. Each
panelist will evaluate all the samples that will be
prepared for each treatment in one session.