Anda di halaman 1dari 47

Burgmann

Dry Gas Seals for Compressors


Polymer Dry Gas Seal for Low
Temperature applications
Tmin = -170°C
Tandem Dry Gas Seal with
internal labyrinth
clean process gas flare N2 bearing
side
Centrifugal Compressor

Suction Nozzle Discharge Nozzle

Seal Area
Why Dry Gas Seals ?

• No oil usage
• High reliabilty
• High Safety
• Low Maintenance Costs
• Low Operating Costs
• Low Process Gas Losses
• Environmental Concerns
• Operating Simplicity
Dry Gas Seal components
high pressure (pressure to be sealed) bi-directional

grooved area

seal dam
large
seal face uni-directional

Process side Atmospheric side


low pressure (atmosphere, flare or vent)

rotating stationary
Forces

Static

Pressure
Pressure Rotating Ring Stationary face and
gradient spring force

Dynamic
Reaction to transients

3D groove
(Burgmann uni-
and bi-directional
seal)
Operating gap
opening force

closing force

axial force
gap

operating gap
uni - directional, V - Groove

 aerodynamic contour
 variable depth
 three-dimensional
 operational safety
Dry Gas Seal Principle V-groove
GAS in

Pressure increase

Direction of rotation
bi - directional, U - Groove

 aerodynamic contour
 variable depth
 three-dimensional
 operational safety
Dry Gas Seal Principle U-groove
Pressure increase

GAS

GAS

Direction of rotation
Dry Gas Seal Principle U-groove
sloped groove bed
Self cleaning effect due to sloped groove bed
no corners where dirt can get stuck

normal gap height reduced gap height


Seal face material combinations

Rotating face Stationary seat


SiC-Si
SiC-Si / LPS SiC-Si+DLC
Si3N4

LPS = Liquid Phase Sintered

DLC = Diamond Like Carbon coating


Seal face characteristics

Dry running properties for starts / stops SIC face coating with DLC

excellent chemical resistance SIC no binders

controlled deformation low thermal expansion coefficient

minimised influence on
low density of SIC
rotor behaviour

high rigidity intense Modulus of Elasticity

high degree of thermal conductivity minimised thermal stress


across the rings
Burgmann
Dry Gas Seal Arrangements
Single seal arrangement
leakage
clean gas to flare separation gas

• suitable to non - toxic


and non - hazardous
gases
• venting of product
gas to atmosphere
permitted
Tandem seal arrangement

leakage leakage separation gas


clean gas
to flare to atm.

• partially suitable for


hazardous gases
• enhanced safety by
tandem seal
• venting of small
amounts of product
gas (3stdl/min) to
atmosphere permitted
Tandem seal with internal labyrinth
leakage leakage
clean gas buffer gas
to flare to vent

• emission free
• suitable for toxic and
hazardous gases
• enhanced safety by
tandem seal
• availability of nitrogen
required
Double seal arrangement
buffer gas
clean gas buffer gas
to vent
• emission free
• suitable for toxic and
hazardous gases
• suitable for low pressure
applications (p < flare
pressure)
• no flare connection required
• available nitrogen pressure
must be at least 2 bar over
product gas pressure
• process must allow a
nitrogen contamination
Seals with O-rings can have the
following problems

Chemical
problems

Extrusion
Explosive
Decompression
Installation
Damage

Mechanical Wear
For some applications the better solution is
the Burgmann Polymer Dry Gas Seal (PDGS)

no chemical problems
no extrusion
no explosive decompression
no mechanical wear

result in: NO HANG UP


Seal configuration
Why no hang up
Burgmann Polymer Dry Gas Seals have no hang up because extrusion of secondary sealing
elements is not possible due to optimised gaps. Small gaps are possible by using materials
with about the same thermal expansion coefficients - Silicon carbide for seal faces and rotating
seats and Tungsten carbide for sleeves and back up rings

Stationary seal face

Rotating ring

TC balance sleeve TC back up ring

TC = Tungsten Carbide
DRY GAS SEAL
Operating limits:
Pmax = 250 bar
Vgmax = 200 m/s
Vgmin = dependent on seal design,
has to be checked!
Tmax = +230 °C
Tmin = -170 °C
Current Methods of Sealing
Compressors

sealing systems for turbocompressors

wet seals dry seals

floating rings labyrinths

mechanical seals carbon ring seals

combinations
Current Methods of Sealing
Compressors

sealing systems for turbocompressors

wet seals dry seals

floating rings labyrinths

mechanical seals carbon ring seals

combinations dry gas seals


Why Dry Gas Seals ?
• No oil usage
• High reliabilty
• High Safety
• Maintenance Costs
• Operating Costs
• Process Gas Losses
• Environmental Concerns
• Operating Simplicity
Dry Gas Seal Materials
Metal parts ASTM A276, Gr.420
(DIN 1.4122)
UNS S42400
(DIN 1.4313,
DIN 1.4313S (NACE))
Seal face silicon carbide
Grooved face silicon carbide
Secondary sealing elastomers,
elements metal spring
energized
polymer rings
Magnitudes of different face
materials
Material Carbon WC SiC Si3N4
Magnitude (Ni) sintered

Spec. Mass (kg/dm³) 2..2,5 14,5 3,1 3,26

Tensile Strength (MPa) 80..120 1700 450 850

E-Modulus 10-4(N/mm2) 2..4 60-63 30-41 35

Thermal Conductivity  7..12 80 100...130 30


(W/mK)

Thermal Coefficient of 4..5 4,8 4 2,1


-6
Expansion  (10 /K).
Groove entry angle alpha
aerodynamic aerostatic groove
groove contour contour
uni - directional, V - Groove

 aerodynamic contour
 variable depth
 operational safety
Dry Gas Seal Principle V-groove

GAS in

Pressure increase

Direction of rotation
bi - directional, U - Groove

 aerodynamic contour
 variable depth
 operational safety
Dry Gas Seal Principle U-groove

Pressure increase

GAS

GAS

Direction of rotation
Advantages of the Burgmann
groove design
optimal performance point optimised contour variing groove-depth

30
optimal groove depth (m-6)

0
speed
Forces

Static

Pressure
Pressure Rotating Ring Stationary face and
gradient spring force

Dynamic
Reaction to transients

3D groove

Operating gap
opening force

closing force

axial force
gap

op. gap
Gasfilm - stiffness

aerodynamic groove with sloped bed


DGS/124 ; p = 60 bar ; n = 16000 rpm ; air ; t = 100 °C

axial force [N] ; axial stiffness [N/µm]


160000

140000

120000

100000

80000

60000
axial force
40000

20000
axial stiffness
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4

technical gap = 1 helium light band (0.3 µm) gap [µm]


Burgmann
Dry Gas Seal Arrangements
Single seal arrangement
leakage
clean gas to flare separation gas

• suitable to non - toxic


and non - hazardous
gases
• venting of product
gas to atmosphere
permitted
Tandem seal arrangement

leakage leakage separation gas


clean gas
to flare to atm.

• partially suitable for


hazardous gases
• enhanced safety by
tandem seal
• venting of small
amounts of product
gas (3stdl/min) to
atmosphere permitted
Tandem seal with internal
labyrinth
leakage leakage
clean gas buffer gas
to flare to vent

• emission free
• suitable for toxic and
hazardous gases
• enhanced safety by
tandem seal
• availability of nitrogen
required
Double seal arrangement
buffer gas
clean gas buffer gas
to vent
• emission free
• suitable for toxic and
hazardous gases
• suitable for low pressure
applications (p < flare
pressure)
• no flare connection required
• available nitrogen pressure
must be at least 2 bar over
product gas pressure
• process must allow a
nitrogen contamination
Operating limits
Shaft diameter 21 mm..250 mm
other sizes on request
Pressure 120 bar a (Elastomers)
200 bar (Polymers)
higher pressures on request

Temperature -54°C..205°C (Elastomers)


-55°C..250°C (Polymers)
Peripherical speed max 200 m/s based on outside dia of
rotating ring

Axial movement Axial DW 21.....100 1 mm


DW 101...200  2 mm
DW 201...250  3 mm
Radial DW 21.....250  0,6 mm
Leakage

Density
Pressure
Differential
Face Gap
Seal Leakage
Mass Flow
.
m  (p22-p12) h3
= dg
12  Ri T ln d
Seal Size
Viscosity
Power Loss
Heat generation Heat dissipation
• Pressure • leakage rate
- high closing force • thermal conductivity
• Speed of seal components
- viscous shear • Optimised seal design
- windage
• Gas to be handled
-viscosity
low power consumption