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Lecture 3
The Pelvic Girdle and
Lower Limb
Pelvic Girdle
• The pelvis is formed by 2 innominate bones that meet in the
anterior aspect to form the symphysis pubis.
• The 2 innominate bones meet the sacrum in the posterior
aspect to form the sacroilliac joints (x2)
• These articulations form a ring of bone to create a bowl for
the internal organs for protection.
• Pelvic alignment is
vital for correct
weight bearing and
standing postures.
Pelvis and Hip
• Each innominate bone
is formed by 3 fused
bones, ilium (ASIS,
sticky out bits), ischium
(sitting bones) and
• The socket in the pelvis
is called the
acetabulum and
together with the
proximal end of the
femur creates the hip
The Hip Joint
• Ball and Socket Joint. (Femur and Acetabulum)
- Articulates in the hip socket, with slight inward curve that
aligns the body vertically with the knee and ankle. This is
fundamental to the centre of gravity and key to standing
- Stabilised by very strong ligaments

Internal Rotation
External Rotation.
X ray image of the pelvis and Hips
The Pelvis
• The female pelvis is wider, for child bearing and has a definite
pubic arch.
• As the pelvis is wider in women it could be argued that a
wider stance eases standing poses.
• Male pelvis is heavier and stronger than female.

Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle

• Extends from the
lower back, interior
pelvis and attach to

• Flexor of the hip

• What does iliopsoas

tightness limit ?
Lies deep and extends from sacrum to femur.
Laterally/externally rotates the hip.

Importance of this muscle ?

Muscles of the upper leg
• Hamstrings: found at the back of the leg (3parts)
– Originate at the ischium of the pelvis insert on the tibia.
– Flexes the knee, extends the hip, and externally rotate the knee.
– Tightness in hamstrings can affect spine curvature.

• Quadriceps: found on front of thigh ( 4 parts)

– The 4 parts of the quadriceps combine to form the patellofemoral
– Vastus group: extend the knee
– Rectus femoris: extends knee and flexes hip

•Rectus Femoris:
• Part of the quadriceps muscle on the front of the thigh. Flexes the hip and also
extends the knee. 2 joint muscle
Hip Abductors and Adductors

• Tensor fascia latae/ ITB

• Extends from ilium to ITB and then to tibia
• Flexes, internally rotates and abducts the hip
• Adductors ( +Sartorius, +Gracilis)
• The Adductor muscle group consists of 3 muscles
• Extends from the ischium to the femur
• Adduct, externally rotate and extends the hip
• Gluteus Group (Maximus/Medius/Minimus)
• Extends from ilium to femur and into the ITB (iliotibial band)
• Extends and externally rotate the hip
Muscles of the Hip joint
The knee joint
The Knee Joint
3x Bones – 2x Joints
• Largest joint in the body
• Hinge joint (complex) Condylar
• Synovial Joint
• Articulation between the distal end of femur and
• Articular surfaces covered with cartilaginous discs
called meniscus. (medial and lateral)
• Stabilised by strong ligaments.
– Medial and Lateral collateral ligaments,
– Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligaments.
• The patella forms the patellofemoral joint.
Ligaments around the knee
Muscles of the Lower Leg
• Gastrocnemius
– gives shape to the back of the lower leg and forms Achilles tendon.
– Plantaflexes the ankle and assists in flexion of the knee. ( Standing on
tip toes )

• Soleus
– lies underneath gastrocnemius.
– Plantaflexes the ankle, works to keep upright posture.

• Tibialis Anterior
– Dorsiflexes the ankle.
Ankle and Foot
• Ankle: Hinge Joint
• 7 tarsus bones.
• Foot: 5 metatarsals. 14 phalanges to create
• The ankle and foot provide the body with both
a mobile platform & rigid lever

• Movement: Dorsiflexion, Plantaflexion,

• Combined movement with the foot producing:
Supination & Pronation (inversion & eversion).
Ankle and Foot
Plantar Arch of the foot
• Arches of the foot are maintained by
– boney structure
– plantar muscles
– ligaments.
• Helps support the body weight.
• Weakness or fatigue of muscles can alter arch
and foot posture ( flat feet). High arches can
be caused by muscular and fascia tightness.
• Plantar fascia covers sole of foot and
contributes to the formation of the arches.
Plantar Fascia & Arches
Plantar fasciitis
• Common form of heel pain.
• Can be caused by overuse, walking
on uneven surfaces, tight calf muscles
or over pronation of the foot.
• Not an inflammatory condition as once
thought but a degeneration
of collagen fibres in the
plantar fascia.
• Improves with stretching.
Poses- Paschiamottanasana
Seated Forward bend
• Lower Limb
• Hip: Flexion and adduction
• Knee: Extension
• Ankle: Dorsiflexion
• Passive stretching of hamstrings. Tightness in
back of leg and pelvis can cause restriction.
Standing Forward Bend

Is there a difference
to Paschiamottanasana ?
Setu Bandhasana
Bridge Pose
Setu Bandhasana
Bridge Pose

• Lower Limb
– hip extension, adduction, and internal rotation
– knee flexion
– ankle dorsiflexion
• Upper Limb
– scapula adduction, downward rotation, elevation;
– glenohumeral joint external rotation, extension,
– elbow flexion; forearm supination;
– wrist extension (dorsiflexion).
reading for next session 4
• Pages 4, 5 and 10 anatomy colouring book
• Pages 23-44 in yoga anatomy edition 2
• Revise for 12 question
mini test on lower limb.