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Fired heaters

• Means : A fired heater is an insulated

enclosure that uses the heat created by the
combustion of fuels to heat fluids contained
inside coils.
• Heaters divided based on structural
configuration, radiant tube coil configuration ,
burner arrangement
Fired Heaters classification
• structural configurations are cylindrical, box,
cabin and multi-cell box.
• radiant-tube coil configurations include
vertical , horizontal ,helical ,arbor.
• burner arrangements include: up-fired , down-
fired , wall-fired .The wall-fired arrangement
can be further classified as sidewall, endwall
and multilevel.
Fired heaters - Draft
• Draft is the negative pressure (Vacuum) of air
or flue gas measured at any point in the
• Forced draft,Induced draft,balanced
draft,natural draft.
Fired Heaters parts and info
Anchoring in refractory Lining
• An anchoring system is provided for Supporting a
double layered refractory lining of a process
• The anchoring system has a plural ity of
bifurcated anchors extending from the internal
surface of the process vessel through the first
layer and into the second layer of the double-
layered lining adjacent the first layer wherein the
plurality of bifurcated anchors have a bifur cation
disposed within the second layer.
350 - 450 C

800 - 900 C
150mm TO 200mm
thick castable
refractory Bottom floor
200mm thick
refractory with
one layer of
CERAWOOL 1300 - 1600 C brick lining

SS304 foil 0.2mm thick for

corrosion resistance

25mm thick cerawool

Heater steel
pads laid one after another.
external shell

Cerawool blankets hold

down bolts

paint coating
Cerawool is not used in furnaces with oil
fired burners.

Cost is high
Fire Box and Refractory Layer
• Section contains the burners (under it)
the open flames, and combustion gases.
• Fire box is lined with refractory brick
(usually white/tan in color, lightweight,
chalk-like, ceramic material) lining that
can handle high temperatures and
reflects heat back into the furnace.
Fire Box and Refractory Layer
• Refractory layer includes a brick layer and
stainless steel rods (sometimes a wire
mesh) that attach to the brick.
• “Peep” holes so the operator/engineer can
view the firebox ‘flame’, get a temperature
reading, etc.
• Fire box temperature typically 1,800 oF.