Anda di halaman 1dari 78

Basic Skill Development on SAFE USE OF

RIGGING GEARS & CRANE OPERATION

.
Ref.
BY •OSHA & LEEA(Lifting
Safetyinformations.com equipment engineers association)
•INSPECTEST
Essential requirements
Documents(Permit,
Procedure etc)

Tools(General, Special etc)


Spares(Consumable, Non
consumable)

Safety Precautions
(Equipment, personal etc)
Essential requirements(Documents, Spares
 Work request.
Tools&
 Work authorization.
Precautions)
 Radiation work permit.
 Industrial hazard permit if required.
 Work procedure.
 Drawings & all other necessary documents.
 Proper tools (Spanners, hammer, screw drivers, pliers, torque wrench etc).
 Spares.
 Rubber or polythene sheet, polythene bags.
 Masking tape, marker & metal marker etc.
 Torch.
 Plastic bucket, cotton rag.
 Set proper location for placing parts & spares.
 Contact local operator for proper isolation.
 Pre- job briefing.
 Housekeeping & maintain log book.
 FME & Human performance improvement tools.
Human performance improvement tools
• Self-Checking
• Questioning Attitude
• Two-Minute Drill
• Place-Keeping
• Three-Part Communication
• Phonetic Alphabet
• Stop When Unsure
• Procedure Use and Adherence
• Conservative Decision-Making
RIGGING GEARS
Equipments used for lifting & lowering the loads by
crane or chain block (Between the load & crane
hook)..
Sling( b/w load & hook).
Shackles.
Eyebolts. etc
TYPES OF SLING
wire rope sling.
chain sling.
 wire mesh sling.
Synthetic sling.
Synthetic rope sling.
 synthetic webbing sling.
Synthetic round sling.
Alloy Chain Slings
Advantages Disadvantages
 Flexible  Heavy
 Impact resistant  Moderate initial cost
 Easy to inspect
 Can be used at relatively
high temperatures
 Completely repairable
 Minimum elongation
 Corrosion resistant
 Durable
Wire Rope Slings
Advantages Disadvantages
 Low initial cost  Low strength to weight ratio
 Lighter weight than alloy  Difficult to inspect
chain  Easily kinked
 Internal corrosion
 Not repairable
Metal Mesh Slings
Advantages Disadvantages
• Flexibility  Subject to crushing
• Wide bearing surface  Any broken wire is cause for
• Resists abrasion and cutting removal from service
• Resists corrosion
Synthetic Slings
Advantages Disadvantages
 Light weight  Low heat resistance
 Easy to rig  194° F.
 Low initial cost  Subject to cuts and abrasion
 Reduced load damage  Subject to chemicals and UV
 Cannot be repaired
WIRE ROPE SLING
CONSTRUCTION : Made from cold drawn steel wire
known as improved plow steel & extra improved
plow steel(IPS & EIPS).
Composed of :
Wires
strands
 Core( fiber core or wire rope core).
 Fiber core: more flexible.
 IWRC(independent wire rope core): Bending not
involved.15% stronger than fiber core but fiber
core is more flexible.
WIRE ROPE SLING
One lay

Operating Engineers National Hazmat


Program
DESIGN FACTOR OF SLING
• Ratio between recommended lifting capacity
and breaking strength of wire rope.
DESIGN FACTOR = FIVE TO ONE.
• It means that if S.W.L = 1 ton then wire rope
will break at = 5 ton.
WIRE ROPE SIZE
USE OF WIRE ROPE AS A SLING
By using EYES on both ends. Such as:
Mechanically spliced thimble eye.
Wire rope sockets.
Wedge socket.
Hand tucked thimble spliced.
U bolt clips.
KINDS OF WIRE ROPE SLING
WEDGE SOCKET
RIGHT &WRONG WAYS OF CLIPPING
Polyester Round Slings color coding
Rated Capacity (Lbs.)

Width (In.) Color Vertical Choker Basket


Purple 3,000 2,400 6,000
Black 4,500 3,600 9,000
2
Green 6,000 4,800 12,000
Yellow 9,000 7,200 18,000
Gray 12,000 9,600 24,000
Red 14,000 11,200 28,000
3
Brown 17,000 13,600 34,000
Blue 22,000 17,600 44,000
26,000 20,800 52,000
4
32,000 25,600 64,000
Orange
50,000 40,000 100,000
5
60,000 48,000 120,000
Types of Double Wrap
Basket Hitch
Vertical Basket
Hitch

hitches
.

Double Wrap Choker Hitch


Choker Hitches
SAFE WORKING WITH WIRE ROPE
SLING (Precautions)
Never over load.
Never lift on the point of a hook.
Never join wire ropes of opposite lay.
Never attempt to shorten, knot or tie a wire
rope sling.
Never use ropes twisted or kinked.
Never hammer for positioning.
Do not repair by yourself.
SLINGING HAZARD
Stay on safe distance.
Use wood or suitable packing to protect sharp
edges.
Whenever two or more slings to be placed
over a hook use shackle.
Do not place splice or attached fitting near
bending point.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat
Program
Preparation and procedure of Slinging
Assessment of load
weight.
Checking
route/path.
Selection of lifting
gear.
Inspection of lifting
gears.
Center of gravity.
Controlling of load.
LOAD LIFTING OPERATIONS
 Position the hook of crane. & engage the load
with suitable sling.
 Lift the load just above the surface.
 wait for rest the load, not swing.
 Lift at required height.
 Traveling the load.
 Placing of load.
SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES FOR
RIGGER'S
Crane signaling is a basic mean of communication
between a crane operator and a rigger.
Make sure that crane operator & rigger understand
the hand-signals.
Keep yourself aware of obstruction within crane
reach and work area.
Make your self familiar about S.W.L. of wire ropes
slings and other lifting gears.
Slings to be checked for proper hooking with load.
……Cont.
When lifting, always stop when load is just
hanged and check for balance and security of
load.
Warn the others working in lifting area to be
careful.
Barricade the area of load lifting, if possible.
Wear yellow color jacket.
Know the weight of load being lifted.
……Cont.
Always give a clear signal to operator.
Walky Talky should be used combine with
hand signals.
Make sure that load is free to be lifted, must
not be hold stacked or over lapped by some
other load.
.
C.G ON LIFT .

SINGLE
LEG
SLING
Use
a
tagline
to
prevent
rotation
EYE BOLTS TYPES
Link. LINK DYNAMO STANDARD

Dynamo.
Standard.

LIGHT DUTY
EYEBOLTS
. Use shim when the eye bolt cannot be aligned.

Use shim when the eye bolt


.
cannot be aligned
Use shim when the eye bolt cannot be aligned.
Use shim when the eye bolt cannot be aligned.

Use shim when the eye bolt cannot be


aligned.
SAFE USE OF EYE BOLTS
Use shim when the eye bolt can not be aligned.
No eye bolt less then 12mm diameter should be
used for lifting purpose.
Further no eye bolt should be tightened more
than finger tight.
Ensure contact surface around the hole is flat,
clean & big enough to support.
Where single eye bolt is used, use swivel hook to
prevent the eye bolt unscrewing if the load
rotates.
TYPES OF SHACKLES
.

BOW

DEE
.

.
DESIGN OF SHACKLES
 The strength of body & pin are approximately
equal, i.e. the pin is larger in diameter than the
body.
 Shackles are sized by the diameter of steel in the
bow section rather than the pin size.
 Shackles have a minimum design factor of 5.
 Rings should be forged steel & weld less.
 Stamped letter on its side identifying
manufacturers name, trade mark, shackle size,
and safe working load (SWL).
….Cont.
Shackles used for hoisting must be of forged
alloy steel and must be of the screw pin or
bolt type.
Shackle pins shall be unmarked.
Before a critical lifts the shackles must go
through NDT (non destructive testing) and a
proof load test at twice its SWL.
SAFE USE OF SHACKLES
Centralize whatever is being hoisted on the pin by
suitable washers or spacers.
Shackles shall not be used if the pin cannot be
completely seated with hand.
The shackle pin shall never be replaced with a bolt.
Bolts are not intended to take the load that is
normally applied to the pin.
Do not use screw pin shackles if the pin can roll and
unscrew. If the load shift, the sling will unscrew the
shackle pin.
CONCLUSION
Know the load.
Select the right equipment for the job.
Inspect equipment prior to use, removing from
service any in question.
Use appropriate hitch.
Balance the load.
Remember the effect of sling angles on load
capacities. Follow safe practices.
Properly store equipment when finished to avoid
damage.
Maintain the equipment.
Inspection

&

Storage
How often to inspect lifting gear
In-service and Periodic
• Synthetic slings – 3 monthly, mandated by AS4497.2
• Winches, Blocks and Hoists – 12 monthly for general use, 3
monthly for intensive use
• Chain and Wire Rope Slings – 12 monthly for general use, 3
monthly for intensive use
Defects of Sling
.
.

.
INSPECTION
INSPECTION
INSPECTION
INSPECTING POINT
Storing & handling W.R sling
Never return damaged or contaminated sling
to store.
They should be dry, clean and protected from
corrosion.
Store the WR sling on a rack & not lying on the
ground.
Storage area should be clean & dry.
Do not alter, modify or repair. Refer to
competent person.
Storing & handling W.R sling
Storing & handling W.R sling
.

OVERHEAD CRANE
How H heavy is the load?
operating limitations of the crane and
HOISTSAFE
What are the O rigging?
When was the last I inspection performed?

How will S sling angles affect lifting capacity?


Have you performed
a T test lift to check stability?

Move the load with S smooth and steady actions

Is the A area clear of personnel and obstructions?

Can the load be F flown and landed safely?


HOISTSAFE
How will the E environment affect the safety of the lift?

SAFE HOIST AND CRANE


OPERATIONSMove the load with SMOOTH AND STEADY actions.
OVERHEAD CRANE

Mainly Consist :
Bridge.
Trolley.
Hoist.
Push button station for operating the crane.
PARTS OF OVERHEAD CRANE
Overhead Hoists/Underhung cable is protected
Tagout Policy from strain.
.

.
Push-
button
station
Minimum
requirements of
OSHA
conductors must
Load on tip Bumper be guarded
must have a positive
stop
STANDARD
HAND SIGNALS

HOISTSAFE

Move the load with SMOOTH AND STEADY actions.


Standard Hand Signals

Move the load with SMOOTH AND STEADY actions.


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CONCLUSION
Know the load.
Select the right equipment for the job.
Inspect equipment prior to use, removing from service
any in question.
Use appropriate hitch.
Balance the load.
Remember the effect of sling angles on load capacities.
Follow safe practices.
Properly store equipment when finished to avoid
damage.
Maintain the equipment.