Anda di halaman 1dari 20


Under the guidance of Prof. Srividya Iyengar

Group 7

Amrita Singh
Jeetu Jose
Ripu Ranjan
Rohit V
Rooma Devi
What is leadership?
 Leadership is a process by which a person
influences others to accomplish an objective and
directs the organization in a way that makes it
more cohesive and coherent

 The definition of leadership is influence

 – John Maxwell
Leadership Theories
 Trait Theory of Leadership: -who leaders

 Study of human personality

 Measurement of traits
 Great Person Theory: people are born with
inherited traits
 Characteristics:
◦ Leadership motivation: the desire to lead
◦ Flexibility
◦ Focus on morality (Authentic Leadership)
◦ Multiple domains of intelligence: cognitive, emotional
and cultural

 Behavioural Theory of leadership

 - what leaders do
 Leaders can be made, rather than are born
 Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable
 people can learn to become leaders through teaching and
 Autocratic-Delegation-Continuum model:

 Decision
Autocratic Delegation
Less participative more participative

Consultation and Joint decisions

The Managerial Grid
H 1,9 9,9
i Country club management Team management
9 Thoughtful attention needs of
g people
Work accomplishment is from
committed people, interdependence
h for satisfying relationships leads through a “common stake” in
8 to organization
A comfortable, friendly purpose leads to relationship
organization of trust and respect
7 atmosphere and work tempo
Concern for


5 Organization Man Management
Adequate organization performance
4 possible through balancing the
necessity to
get out work with maintaining
morale of the people at a satisfactory
3 1,1 level 9,1
Impoverished Management Authority-Obedience
Exertion of minimum effort to get Efficiency in operations results
2 required work done is appropriate from arranging conditions of
L to sustain organization work in such a way that human
o membership elements interfere to a minimal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Concern for
Low High
The Contingency Model:
types of contingency theories
LPC Contingency theory

LPC:-least preferred coworker

 A theory suggesting that leaders effectiveness
is determined both by characteristics of
leaders and by the level of situational
control they are able to exert over
 Factors on which LPC depends :-
Nature of leaders relation with group members

Degree of structure in the task

Leader’s position power

An Overview Of LPC
Situational leadership theory

This theory focuses on the best leadership style for a

given situation depending on the maturity of

followers i.e. their readiness to take responsibility for
their own behaviour which has two parameters
Directive and Supportive behaviour.

Path goal theory
 A theory of leadership suggesting that
subordinates will be motivated by a leader only
to the extent they percieve this individual as
helping them to attend valued goals
 Basic Styles :-
Instrumental (directive)



Achievement Oriented
Normative decision theory
A theory of leader effectiveness focusing primarily on

strategies for choosing the most effective approach to
make decisions
 The normative decision model is highly appealing
because it takes full account of the importance of
subordinate participation in decisions and offers leaders
clear guidance for choosing among various methods for
reaching decisions

Au t h e n t ic Le a d e r sh ip
 Clear and unique expression of leadership by
being true to themselves

 Motivated by a larger purpose versus ego

 Demonstrate high integrity by making sound
decisions independent of political expediency

 Results-driven in a way that creates sustained

Five Touchstones

Touchst one One: Know Yourself Aut hent ically
Touchst one Two: List en Aut hent ically.
Touchst one Three: Express Aut hent ically.
Touchst one Four: Appreciat e Aut hent ically.
Touchst one Five: Serve Aut hent ically.
Tou ch st on e On e : Kn ow
You r se lf Au t h e n t ica lly
“ Know t hyself,” appears in t he writ ings of Ovid,
Cicero, and Socrat es, in t he sayings of t he Seven
Sages of Greece, on t he ent rance t o t he t em ple of
Apollo, in Christ ian writ ings and in East ern t ext s.

If we want to be more effective with others, we first need

to become more effective with ourselves.

Practice being what you wish others to become.
Touchstone Two: Listen
 Listening authentically is centered in the principle
of psychological reciprocity:
 to influence others, we must first be open to their
 Authentic listening is about being generous—
listening with a giving attitude that seeks to
bring forth the contribution in someone, versus
listening with our limiting assessments, opinions
and judgments.
 Authentic listening is about being open to the
purpose and learning coming to us through the
other person.
Touchstone Three: Express
 Authentic expression is a delicate subject for
many leaders. Integrity goes far beyond telling
the truth. Integrity means total congruence
between who we are and what we do.

 Authentic expression is the true voice of the

leader. We speak from our character and it
creates trust, synergy and connection with
everyone around us.
Touchstone Four: Appreciate
 As leaders we tend to do too much and appreciate
too little. Love is an extreme case of
 Appreciation is one type of self-expression that
creates value.
 It energizes people and makes people want to
exceed their goals and perceived limits.
 Criticism may get short-term results but usually
doesn’t add long-term value. What it does add is
fear and insecurity.

Touchstone Five: Serve
 Ultimately, a leader is not judged by how well he
or she leads, but by how well he or she serves.
 We serve our organization. We serve our people.
We serve our customers. We serve our
marketplace. We serve our community. We
serve our family. We serve our relationships.

The real job is to serve all the constituencies and to

appreciate genuinely the fact the only through our

interdependence with others do we create value.