Production Planning Control with Nonclericals of Johsan's Algorithm for 2 machine and N jobs

© All Rights Reserved

2 tayangan

Production Planning Control with Nonclericals of Johsan's Algorithm for 2 machine and N jobs

© All Rights Reserved

- AACEI 2011SalarySurveyDATA
- 1.[1-12]Bicriteria in Nx2 Flow Shop Scheduling Including Job Block
- m 027107115
- Operating Room Scheduling under Uncertainty
- Plantlocation
- Sqencing 1.ppt
- Ps Implementation
- Ritchie Thesis 2013
- d08006
- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- The Little Book of Hygge: Danish Secrets to Happy Living
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Yes Please
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance

Anda di halaman 1dari 79

, Surat

ME Mechanical (Machine Design)

Subject Code: 2724610

1

Contents

Inroduction

Production Planning

Production Control

Sub function of Production Planning & Control

Types of Production System

2

Production Planning & Control – An

Introduction

Production Planning is a managerial function which is

mainly concerned with the following important issues:

How these production facilities should be laid down in the

space available for production? and

How they should be used to produce the desired products

at the desired rate of production?

Production planning is concerned with two main aspects:

(i) routing or planning work tasks (ii) layout or spatial

relationship between the resources

3

Production Planning

Production planning is dynamic in nature and always

remains in fluid state as plans may have to be changed

according to the changes in circumstances

What production facilities are required?

How these production facilities should be laid down in the

space available for production? and

How they should be used to produce the desired products

at the desired rate of production?

4

Functions Issues to be covered

Product Design& Customer needs, market needs, availability of similar product, demand-supply gap,

Development functional aspects, operational aspects, environmental aspects etc.

Demand Forecasting

Quantity, Quality, Demand

pattern.

No. of machines, No. of tooling, workers, No.of flow lines, Quantity, Quality and rate of

Only one

1. Planning

Capacity operation is carried out on a machine at a particular time.

production, demand pattern.

2. Each operation,

Equipments Selection

oncetype

No. of machines, started,

of M/c, must

Quality be completed.

aspects, Quantity aspects, rate of production,

Cost of equipments, support from the supplier, maintenance policy, storage of spare

& Maintenance

3. An operationparts. must be completed before its succeeding operation can

Compactability between w/c steels, No. of tools, their cost, their material etc,

start.

Tooling Selection

storage policy.

Only

4.Selection

Material & one machine

Types, of quality

specification, eachaspect,

type quantity

is available.(Lathe, Milling,

aspect, cost, supplies reputationShaper,

, lot size,

Management inventory levels, setup cost, mode of transportation etc.

etc.)

Generation of manufacture instruction, selection of M/c, tools, parameters, sequence

Process Planning

5. A job is processed as soon as possible, but only in the order

etc.

Loading

specified.

Division of work load, assignment of tasks, uniform loading, matching between

capability & capacity with job requirements.

6. Processing time are independent of order of performing the

Path selection for material movement as per the process plan and loading, minimum

Routing

material handling and waiting time.

operations.

Scheduling Time based loading, start and finish times, due dates, dispatching rules, re-scheduling.

6

Condition/Assumption Single Machine Scheduling

job (j) = 1, 2, 3, …, n complete on a single machine(m).

operation: 1 and 2

2 and 1

Operation: 1, 2 and 3

1, 3 and 2

2, 3 and 1

2, 1 and 3

3, 1 and 2

3, 2 and 1

7

Condition/Assumption Single Machine Scheduling

The total number of sequences in the basic single machine problem

is n! which is the number of different combination of n elements.

n !

m

8

Definition

Processing Time (tj)

Ready Time (rj)

Due Date (dj)

Completion Time (Cj)

Flow Time (Fj)

Lateness (Lj)

Tardiness (Tj)

Mean flow time F

Mean tardiness

Shortest processing time(SPT)

9

Processing time(tj):

It is the time required to process job j. The processing time, tj will

normally include both actual processing time and set-up time.

10

Ready time(rj):

It is the time at which job j is available for processing.

The ready time of a job is the difference between the arrival time of that

job and the time at which that job is taken for processing.

11

Due date(dj):

It is the date at which the job j is to be completed.

12

Completion time(Cj):

It is the time at which the job j is completed in a sequence.

Performance measures for evaluating schedules are usually function of

job completion time.

Tardiness, etc.

13

Flow time(Fj):

It is the amount of time of job j spends in the system.

system.

time of the job j.

i.e. Fj = Cj – rj

14

Lateness (Lj):

It is the amount of time by which the completion time of job j differs from the

due date (Lj = Cj – dj).

Positive lateness of a job means that the job is completed after its due date.

Negative lateness of a job means that the job is completed before its due date.

measure of better service. In many situations, distinct penalties and other

costs are associated with positive lateness, but generally, no benefits are

associated with negative lateness. Therefore, it is often desirable to optimize

only positive lateness.

15

Tardiness (Tj):

Tardiness is the lateness of job j if it fails to meet its due date, or

zero, otherwise

= Max {O, Lj }.

16

Shortest Processing Time (SPT) Rule

In single machine scheduling problem, sequencing the jobs in

increasing order of processing time is known as the shortest processing

time (SPT) sequencing.

The time spent by a job in the system is nothing but its flow time, and

the ‘rapid turnaround time’ is its mean flow time F . Shortest

processing time (SPT) rule minimizes the waiting time, mean flow time

lateness.

1 n

F Fj

n j 1

17

ILLUSTRATION 1: Consider the following single machine-scheduling

problem.

Job (j) 1 2 3 4 5

Processing

15 4 5 14 8

time(t) hrs

Find the optimal sequence, which will minimize the mean flow time and

also obtain the minimum mean flow time.

18

SOLUTION:

No. of jobs = 5

Arrange the jobs as per the SPT ordering

Job (j) 2 3 5 4 1

Processing

4 5 8 14 15

time(t) (hrs)

Therefore, the job sequence, which will minimize the mean flow time,

is 2-3-5-4-1. Computation of Fmin.

Job (j) 2 3 5 4 1

Processing

4 5 8 14 15

time(t) (hrs)

Completion

4 9 17 31 46

time (cj ) (Fj )

19

Since, the ready time rj = 0 for all j, the flow time (Fj) is

equal to Cj for all j.

1

4 9 17 31 46

5

1 n

F Fj 1

107

n j 1 5

21.4 hours

Therefore, the optimal mean flow time = 21.4 hours.

20

illustration:2, six jobs A, B, C, D, E and F have arrived at one time to be

processed o a single machine. Assuming that no jobs arrive thereafter,

Job A B C D E F

Processing

7 6 8 4 3 5

time (minutes)

Determine:

1 optimal sequence as per SPT rule,

2 completion times of the job,

3 mean flow time.

21

WSPT Rule

In case importance of the jobs varies, Under such situation, each job is

assigned a weight, wj and larger value indicating greater importance. The

weighted mean flow time, which is shown below:

n

w .F

j 1

j j

Fw n

w j 1

j

increasing order of weighted processing time is known as Weighted

Shortest Processing Time (WSPT) sequencing.

time by its weight. T/wj

22

ILLUSTRATION 2: Consider the following single machine-scheduling

problem with weights:

Job (j) 1 2 3 4 5

Processing

15 4 5 14 8

time(tj) (hrs)

Weight (W) 1 2 1 2 3

Determine the sequence, which will minimize the weighted mean flow time

of the above problem. Also find the weighted mean flow time.

23

Job (j) 1 2 3 4 5

Processing

15 4 5 14 8

time(tj) (hrs)

Weight (W) 1 2 1 2 3

T/wj 15 2 5 7 2.67

From the above table, we get the following relation.

Therefore optimal sequence, which will minimize the weighted mean flow

time, is, 2 – 5 – 3 – 4 – 1.

24

Fw Calculation:

Job (j) 2 5 3 4 1

Tj 4 8 5 14 15

Cj (Fj) 4 12 17 31 46

Fj * Wj 8 36 17 62 46

w .F j j

8 36 17 62 46 169

Fw j 1

n

2 3 1 2 1 9

w j

j 1 18.78 hours

25

Earliest Due Date (EDD) Rule

The lateness (Lj) of a job is defined as the difference between the

completion time and the due date of that job. Lj can be either positive

or negative values.

Lj = Cj – dj

The maximum job lateness (Lmax) and the maximum job tardiness

(Tmax) are minimized by Earliest Due Date sequencing.

increasing order of due date is known as ‘‘Earliest Due Date Rule’’.

26

ILLUSTRATION 3: Consider the following single machining

scheduling problem:

Job (j) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Processing time (tj) 10 8 8 7 12 15

Due date (dj) 15 10 12 11 18 25

(Lmax). Also, determine Lmax with respect to the optimal sequence.

27

SOLUTION: Arrange the jobs as per EDD rule (i.e. in the order of their

due dates).

value for Lmax.

Due date (dj) 10 11 12 15 18 25

Processing time (tj) 8 7 8 10 12 15

Completion Time (Cj) 8 15 23 33 45 60

Lateness (Lj) -2 4 11 18 27 35

From the table, the maximum lateness is 35. This is the optimal value

for Lmax. The Lmax of any other non- EDD sequence will not be less than

35.

28

Minimizing the number of Tardy Jobs

If a job is completed beyond its due date, then it is called tardy job;

otherwise it is called non-tardy job. In many organizations, the

objective may be to minimize the total number of tardy jobs.

it yields exactly one tardy job,

jobs (NT),

If it yields more than one tardy job, the EDD sequence

may not yield the optimal solution.

29

Minimizing the number of Tardy Jobs

An exact algorithm for the general case is given below. The final

sequence consists of two streams of jobs as given below:

(b) Then, a set (L) of late jobs, in any order.

number of tardy jobs (NT).

30

Minimizing the number of Tardy Jobs

HODGSON’S ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZE (NT)

Step 1: Arrange the jobs in EDD order and assume this, as set E. Let set L

be empty.

Step 2: If no jobs in E are late, then stop. Find the union of E and L (Note:

The remaining jobs in E should be in EDD order. But the jobs in L can be

in any order); otherwise, identify the first late job in E. Let it be job K.

Step 3: Identify the longest job, among the first K jobs in the sequence.

Remove this job from E and place it in L. Revise the completion times of

the jobs remaining in E and return, to Step 2.

31

ILLUSTRATION 4 : A computer systems consulting company is

under contract to carry out seven projects, all with deadliness assured

in days from now. The consultants are a small group and they work

together on each project, so that the project will be started and

completed sequentially. Under the terms of contract, the consultants

will receive Rs. 24,000 for each project completed on time, but they will

incur Rs. 40,000 in penalties for each project completed late. Each

project has an, associated duration, which is the anticipated number of

days required to carry out the project as shown below.

How should the projects be sequenced in order to maximize net

revenues?

Project ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Duration (Dj) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Deadlines (d) 6 12 30 19 12 18 24

32

SOLUTION: From the statement of the problem, one can identify that

the objective is to maximize net revenues. This can be achieved by

simply obtaining a sequence, which will minimize the number of tardy

jobs (NT), Hence, we apply Hodgson’s algorithm to minimize NT.

aij 6 12 12 18 19 24 30

Project ID (j) 1 2 5 6 4 7 3

Therefore,

Set E = (1, 2, 5, 6, 4, 7,3)

Set L = (Empty).

33

Step 2: The lateness of the projects are checked as shown below:

Project ID (j) 1 2 5 6 4 7 3

Duration (tj) 2 4 10 12 8 14 6

Completion time (Cj) 2 6 16 28 36 50 56

Due date (d) 6 12 12 18 19 24 30

Tardy/ non-tardy (1/0) 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

In the above table, in the last row, 0 means that the project is non-tardy

and 1 means that the project is tardy.

As per the sequence in the set E, there are five tardy projects. The

first tardy project is 5, which is in the third position [3].

Step 3: The project with the largest duration(10) among the first-three

projects in the sequence is 5. Remove this project and append it to L.

Therefore

L = {5}

E = {1, 2, 6, 4, 7, 3}.

34

The completion times of the projects in the set E are revised as shown below:

Project ID (j) 1 2 6 4 7 3

Duration (tj) 2 4 12 8 14 6

Completion time (Cj) 2 6 18 26 40 46

Due date (d) 6 12 18 19 24 30

Tardy/ non-tardy (1/0) 0 0 0 1 1 1

Step 2: From Step 3, it is clear that there are three tardy projects. The first

tardy project is 4, which is in the fourth position of the sequence in the set

E.

Step 3: The project with the longest duration(12) among the first-four

projects is 6. Remove the project-6 from the set E and append it to the set L.

Therefore

E = {1, 2, 4, 7, 3}

L = {5, 6}.

35

The completion times of the projects in the set E are revised as shown:

Project ID (j) 1 2 4 7 3

Duration (tj) 2 4 8 14 6

Completion time (Cj) 2 6 14 28 34

Due date (d) 6 12 19 24 30

Tardy/ non-tardy (1/0) 0 0 0 1 1

Step 2: From Step 3, it is clear that there are two tardy projects. The

first tardy project is 7, which is in the fourth position of the sequence in

the set E.

Step 3: The project with the longest duration(14) among the first-four

projects in the set E are 7. Remove this project from the set E and

append it to the set L.

Therefore

E = {1, 2, 4, 3}

L = {5, 6,7}.

36

The completion times of the projects are revised as shown:

Project ID (j) 1 2 4 3

Duration (tj) 2 4 8 6

Completion time (Cj) 2 6 14 20

Due date (d) 6 12 19 30

Tardy/ non-tardy (1/0) 0 0 0 0

Step 2: From the table in the previous step, it is clear that all the

projects are non-tardy jobs. Hence, we reached the optimal sequence in

E.

Now merge E and L to get the complete sequence.

Final sequence = E Ụ L={1,2,4,3,5,6,7}

In the above optimal sequence, total number of tardy projects is 3,

which is the minimum value.

37

Flow Shop Scheduling

In flow shop scheduling problem, there are n jobs; each require

processing on m different machines. The order in which the

machines are required to process a job is called process sequence of

that job.

The process sequences of all the jobs are the same. But the

processing times for various jobs on a machine may differ. If an

operation is absent in a job, then the processing time of the operation

of that job is assumed as zero.

38

Flow Shop Scheduling

The flow-shop scheduling problem can be characterized as given

below:

zero (Each job requires m operations and each operation requires a

different machine).

2. Set-up times for the operations are sequence independent, and are

included in processing times.

3. Job descriptors are known in advance.

4. m different machines are continuously available.

5. Each individual operation of jobs is processed till its completion

without break.

39

Flow Shop Scheduling

The main difference of the flow shop scheduling from the basic single

machine scheduling is that the inserted idle time may be advantageous

in flow shop scheduling.

Though the current machine is free, if the job from the previous

machine is not released to the current machine, we cannot start

processing on that job. So, the current machine has to be idle for

sometime. Hence, inserted idle time on some machines would lead to

optimality.

40

Flow Shop Scheduling

For example, consider the following flow-shop problem

1 5 4

2 3 1

3 6 2

4 7 8

is computed as shown in Fig.

Here the makespan is 25. Also, note the inserted idle times on machine

2 are from 0 to 3, 4 to 8 and 12 to 15.

41

Flow Shop Scheduling Job Machine 1 Machine 2

1 5 4

Idle Time 2 3 1

3 6 2

4 7 8

2 1 4 3

Machine 2

1 4 8 2 M/C- 1 : 21 minute

M/C- 2 : 25 minute

2 1 4 3

Machine 1 Idle Time: M/C-1 : 0

3 5 7 6 M/C-2 : 10

Make span : 25

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

Gantt Chart for sequence 2-1-4-3 42

Flow Shop Scheduling Job Machine 1 Machine 2

3 6 2

Idle Time

4 7 8

1 5 4

2 3 1

3 4 1 2

Machine 2

2 8 4 1 M/C- 1 : 21 minute

M/C- 2 : 26 minute

3 4 1 2

Machine 1 Idle Time: M/C-1 : 0

6 7 5 3 M/C-2 : 11

Make span : 26

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

Gantt Chart for sequence 3-4-1-2 43

Flow Shop Scheduling

This problem has 4 jobs. Hence, 4! sequences are possible. Unlike in

single machine scheduling, in flow shop scheduling, inserted idle time

would minimize the makespan.

In the above two sequences, 2-1-4-3 and 3-4-1-2, the first sequence has

lesser makespan.

Like this, one can enumerate all 4! sequences, then select the sequence

with the minimum makespan as the optimal sequence.

procedure to solve the problem. For large size of n, it would be

difficult to solve the problem. Under such situation we can use some

efficient heuristic.

44

Flow Shop Scheduling (sequencing Problem)

As mentioned in the earlier section, the time complexity function for a

general flow shop problem is exponential in nature. This means, the

function grows exponentially with an increase in the problem size. But,

for a problem with 2 machines and n jobs, Johnson had developed a

polynomial algorithm to get optimal solution, i.e., in a definite time,

one can get the optimal solution.

the general sequencing problem is stated as: there are n jobs (1,2,3..n)

each of which must be processed through each of M machines (m1, m2,

m3….. Mn) one at a time.

the order of processing each job through the machines is given and also

the time taken to process each job on each machine is known.

45

Flow Shop Scheduling (Johnson's Rules)

Assumptions

1. No machine can process more than one job at a time.

2. Each job once started on one machine is continued till completion on

it.

3. Time involved in moving a job from one machine to another is

negligibly small.

1. n jobs and 2 machines.

2. n jobs and 3 machines.

3. 2 jobs and m machines.

4. n jobs and m machines.

46

Flow Shop Scheduling

1. n jobs and 2 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)

1 t11 t12

2 t21 t22

3 t31 t32

n tn1 tn2

In the above table, tij represents the processing time of the job i

on the machine j.

47

Flow Shop Scheduling

1. n jobs and 2 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)

Step 2a: If the minimum processing time requires machine 1, place the

associated job in the first available position in sequence. Go to Step 3.

Step 2b: If the minimum processing time requires machine 2, place the

associated job in the last available position in sequence. Go to Step 3.

Step 3: Remove the assigned job from consideration and return to Step 1

until all positions in sequence are filled. (Ties may be broken

randomly.)

48

Flow Shop Scheduling

ILLUSTRATION 5: Consider the following two machines and Five jobs flow

shop-scheduling problem.

Job Machine 1 Machine 2

1 5 2

2 1 6

3 9 7

4 3 8

5 10 4

minimize the makespan(Elapsed Time) and Idle Time of any Machine.

49

Flow Shop Scheduling

Processing time (hrs)

Job Machine 1 Machine 2

1 5 2

2 1 6

3 9 7

4 3 8

5 10 4

Optimal Sequence 2 4 3 5 1

50

Processing time (hrs)

Job Machine 1 Machine 2

1 5 2

3

1

9

6

7

4 3 8

5 10 4

Optimal Sequence 2 4 3 5 1

Optimal Machine 1 Machine 2

sequence In Out In Out Idle time

M2

2 0 1 1 7 1

4 1 4 7 15 -

3 4 13 15 22 -

5 13 23 23 27 1

1 23 28 28 30 1

51

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of

Johnson’s Rule

Job Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3

1 t11 t12 t13

2 t21 t22 t23

3 t31 t32 t33

. . . .

. . . .

n tn1 tn2 Tn3

One can extend Johnson’s algorithm from the above Table. if anyone of the

following two conditions is satisfied.

If min ti1 ≥ max ti2

or if min ti3 ≥ max ti2

If anyone of the above conditions is satisfied then, we can extend the

Johnson’s algorithm in the following way.

52

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of

Johnson’s Rule

procedure:

Step I: Convert the three machine problem into two machine problem by

introducing two fictitious machines G and H

Such that Gi = M1 i + M2 i

Hi = M2 i + M3 i i = 1, 2, 3,…..n

Step II: Once the problem is converted to n job 2 machine the sequence is

determined using Johnson’s algorithm for n Jobs and 2 machine.

Step III: For the optimal sequence determined, find out the minimum total

elapsed time and idle times associated with mahicnes.

53

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of

Johnson’s Rule

1. If there are equal smallest processing times one for each machine,

place the job on machine 1, first in the sequence and on in machine 2

last in the sequence.

2. If the equal smallest times are both for machine 1, select the job with

lower processing time in machine 2 for placing first in the sequence.

3. If the equal smallest times are both form Machine 2, select the one

with lower processing time in machine 1, for placing last in the

sequence.

54

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of

Johnson’s Rule

Illustration:

1 8 5 4

2 10 6 9

3 6 2 8

4 7 3 6

5 11 4 5

Find optimal sequence of the jobs. Also find the minimum total elapsed

times and idle times on M2 and M3.

55

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of Johnson’s Rule

Procedure:

Step I: check for the conditions to be satisfied

If min ti1 ≥ max ti2 ; 6=6

or if min ti3 ≥ max ti2 ; 4<6

Hence, the problem can be solved by using Johnson’s n Job 3 –Machine

algorithm.

1 8 5 4

2 10 6 9

3 6 2 8

4 7 3 6

5 11 4 5

56

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of Johnson’s Rule

Procedure:

Step II: Convert the 3 machine problem into 2 machine problem by introducing

two fictitious machines G and H

Gi = M1 i + M2 i

Hi = M2 i + M3 i i = 1, 2, 3,…..n

Jobs Gi Hi

1 13 9

2 16 15

3 8 10

4 10 9

5 15 9

57

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of Johnson’s Rule

Procedure:

Step III: determine the sequence using n job 2 machine procedure.

Jobs Gi Hi

1 13 9

2 16 15

3 8 10

4 10 9

5 15 9

Optimal Sequence 3 2 5 1 4

58

Flow Shop Scheduling

2. n jobs and 3 machines (Johnson's Algorithm)/ Extension of Johnson’s Rule

Optimal Sequence 3 2 5 1 4

sequence In Out In Out Idle In Out Idle

time time

M2 M3

3 0 6 6 8 6 8 16 8

2 6 16 16 22 8 22 31 6

5 16 27 27 31 5 31 36 -

1 27 35 35 40 4 40 44 4

4 35 42 42 45 2 45 51 1

M / C-3 = 19 hrs. 59

Flow Shop Scheduling

3. n jobs and m machines Johnson’s Rule:

Let Tij denote the time taken by jth job on the ith machine.

Procedure :

Step I: find Min Tij ( Minimum time for the first machine)

Min Tmj ( Minimum time on the last machine)

If min Tij ≥ max Tij (for i-2, 3, ….. m-1)

or if min Tmj ≥ max Tij (for i-2, 3, ….. m-1)

Step III: If the conditions in step II are not satisfied, the problem cannot be

solved by this method, and otherwise go to next step.

60

Flow Shop Scheduling

3. n jobs and m machines Johnson’s Rule:

Step IV: convert the n job m machine problem into n job 2 machine problem by

considering two fictitious machines G and H.

Such that,

TGj = Tij + T2j +………..+ Tm-1j

THj = T2j +T3j +………...+ Tmj

Step V: Now obtain the sequence for n jobs using Johnson’s Algorithm.

Step VI: Determine the minimum total elapsed time and idle times associated

with machines

61

Flow Shop Scheduling

3. n jobs and m machines Johnson’s Rule:

M2,….. M6. the processing times in hrs are given

- Find the optimal sequence.

- Minimum total elapsed time.

- Idle times associated with machine.

Processing Times

Jobs M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

A 18 8 7 2 10 25

B 17 6 9 6 8 19

C 11 5 8 5 7 15

D 20 4 3 4 8 12

62

Flow Shop Scheduling

Check for the conditions to be satisfied

If min Tij ≥ max Tij ; 11 > 10

or if min Tmj ≥ max Tij ; 12 > 10

Processing Times

Jobs M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

A 18 8 7 2 10 25

B 17 6 9 6 8 19

C 11 5 8 5 7 15

D 20 4 3 4 8 12

63

Flow Shop Scheduling

Convert the problem into 2 Machine Problem

Jobs Gi Hi

A 45 52

B 46 48

C 36 40

D 39 31

Optimal Sequence C A B D

64

Flow Shop Scheduling

Minimum total elapsed time

Optimal Sequence C A B D

Processing Times

Jobs M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

C 0 – 11 11 – 16 16 – 24 24 - 29 29 - 36 36 – 51

A 11 – 29 29 - 37 37 – 44 44 – 46 46 – 56 56 – 81

B 29 – 46 46 – 52 52 – 61 61 – 67 67 – 75 81 - 100

D 46 - 66 66 - 70 70 - 73 73 - 77 77 - 85 100 - 112

65

Job Shop Scheduling

few quantity of products designed and produced as per the

specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. The

distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of

products.

different departments. Each job demands unique technological

requirements, demands processing on machines in a certain sequence.

machines, tooling and jigs and fixtures, custom clothing, prototype,

large turbo generators, material handling machines, construction

equipment and the like.

66

Job Shop Scheduling

Characteristics

The Job-shop production system is followed when there is:

1. High variety of products and low volume.

2. Use of general purpose machines and facilities.

3. Highly skilled operators who can take up each job as a challenge

because of uniqueness.

4. Large inventory of materials, tools, parts.

5. Movement of material is long and interrupted.

6. Relative imbalance of work loads of different department and labour.

7. Required numerous job instructions.

8. Detailed planning is essential for sequencing the requirements of

each product, capacities for each work centre and order priorities.

67

Job Shop Scheduling

Advantages

Following are the advantages of job shop production:

can be produced.

2. Operators will become more skilled and competent, as each job gives

them learning opportunities.

3. Full potential of operators can be utilised.

4. Opportunity exists for creative methods and innovative ideas.

68

Job Shop Scheduling

Limitations

Following are the limitations of job shop production:

2. Higher level of inventory at all levels and hence higher inventory cost.

3. Production planning is complicated.

4. Larger space requirements.

5. Highly component and skilled manpower is demanded.

69

Job Shop Scheduling

2 job and M machine Scheduling, Graphical solution

shop scheduling. The problem consists of 2 jobs, which require

processing on M machines. The processing sequences of the jobs are

not the same.

Since, this is a special kind under the job shop scheduling like,

Johnson’s problem (n jobs and 2 machines) under flow shop

scheduling, we have a graphical procedure to get optimum schedule.

70

Job Shop Scheduling

2 job and M machine Scheduling, Graphical solution

job 1, its sequence of operations and their processing times, and y-axis

represents the job 2, its sequence of operations and their processing

times (use same scale for both x-axis and y-axis).

two jobs simultaneously.

71

Job Shop Scheduling

2 job and M machine Scheduling, Graphical solution

Step 3: make a starting line from origin (O) and moving through the

various stages of completion (points) till the point marked ‘finished’ is

reached. Choose path consisting only of horizontal, vertical and 45°

lines. A horizontal line represents work on job 1 while job 2 remains

idle, a vertical line represents work on job 2 while job 1 remains idle and

45° line to the base represents simultaneous work on both jobs.

72

2 job and M machine Problem

ILLUSTRATION : Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to

process the following jobs on the machines shown (i.e. for each machine,

find the job which should be scheduled first). Also, calculate the total time

elapsed to complete both jobs.

Job 1 Sequence A B C D E

Time(hrs) 3 4 2 6 2

Job 2 Sequence B C A D E

Time(hrs) 5 4 3 2 6

73

Both job cannot

be processed

simultaneously

on one machine.

Job 2

Elapsed Time/makespan=

Processing time + Idle time

Job 1 = 17 + 2 + 3 = 22 hrs

20

E

D 14

E Job 2 = 20 + 2 = 22 hrs

Machine

D

12

A A

9

C

5

c

B B

3 7 9 15 17

A B C D E

Machine Job 1 74

(i.e. for each machine, find the job which should be

scheduled first).

A 3 < 12 Job 1 Precedes Job 2

B 7<5 Job 2 Precedes Job 1

C 9<9 Job 2 Precedes Job 1

D 15 < 14 Job 2 Precedes Job 1

E 17 < 20 Job 1 Precedes Job 2

75

ILLUSTRATION 1: Use graphical method to minimize the time

needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown

(i.e. for each machine, find the job which should be scheduled

first). Also, calculate the total time elapsed to complete both

jobs.

Job 1 Sequence A B C D E

Time(hrs) 1 2 3 5 1

Job 2 Sequence C A D E B

Time(hrs) 3 4 2 1 5

76

Job 1 = 12 + 3 = 15 hrs

Job 2 = 15 + 0 = 15 hrs

77

ILLUSTRATION 2: Use graphical method to minimize the time

needed to process the following parts on the machines shown

(i.e. for each machine, find the part which should be scheduled

first). Also, calculate the total time elapsed to complete both

parts.

part 1 Sequence C A E F D B

Time(hrs) 2 3 4 5 6 1

part 2 Sequence B A E F C D

Time(hrs) 3 2 5 3 2 3

78

Job 1 = 21 + 2 = 23 hrs

Job 2 = 18 + 5 = 23 hrs

Machine Sequence

A part 1 Precedes part 2

B part 2 Precedes part 1

C part 1 Precedes part 2

D part 1 Precedes part 2

E part 1 Precedes part 2

F part 1 Precedes part 2

79

- AACEI 2011SalarySurveyDATADiunggah olehmisbahscr
- 1.[1-12]Bicriteria in Nx2 Flow Shop Scheduling Including Job BlockDiunggah olehiiste
- m 027107115Diunggah olehAJER JOURNAL
- Operating Room Scheduling under UncertaintyDiunggah olehFabrícioSperandio
- PlantlocationDiunggah olehRajyalakshmi.G
- Sqencing 1.pptDiunggah olehRam Janm Singh
- Ps ImplementationDiunggah olehbaluanne
- Ritchie Thesis 2013Diunggah olehAkaka321
- d08006Diunggah olehWilson Nieves

- FT Historian SE Best PracticesDiunggah olehmpalladi
- UNDP Patents Final WebDiunggah olehselram2006
- A Survey of Software Vulnerability and Auditing ToolsDiunggah olehIJAFRC
- Ch58 AnswersDiunggah olehMuhamad Nurmahmudi
- En ISO 4624 - Pull-Off Test for AdhesionDiunggah olehMuhammedHafis
- Complete Book ThermodynamicsDiunggah olehSamama Fahim
- 6 Steps to CE MarkingDiunggah olehAlessandro Celuzza
- Dividend StrippingDiunggah olehDavid Sims
- Free PDF Note on Further MechanicsDiunggah olehSeth
- CATLING, JOHNORICKS ACE C.-PHY12L B4-E304-4Q1617.pdfDiunggah olehJohnoricks Ace Camarillo Catling
- test simple present tense2.docxDiunggah olehElkin Eduardo Jaimes Lopez
- Internal Organisational AnalysisDiunggah olehNimish Kumar
- Copy of Icici Lombard General InsuranceDiunggah olehNik Arora
- EB9 Making 2-In-1 Shampoo Conditioners Liquid Soaps Shower gDiunggah olehfranciscocampoverde8224
- Predicting Earthquakes Through Data MiningDiunggah olehARVIND
- Phv 1810 QvcDiunggah olehtruspace
- SUTURES.pptDiunggah olehChin Chan
- Post TRIPS effect in IndiaDiunggah olehdhriti9
- english term 3 2016Diunggah olehapi-364686860
- New Order ListDiunggah olehManoj Shah
- Internship Report on Financial PerformanDiunggah olehAseki Shakib Khan Simanto
- CPKG-DE-01012014Diunggah olehOkanKuzin
- G59Diunggah olehAndres Portillo
- statementDiunggah olehAmbrish (gYpr.in)
- Cylinder Colour Coding Identification Chart and InformationDiunggah olehAntonio Jose De Jesus
- Voda smpp 2 2 4Diunggah olehzosuan
- textile-Diunggah olehFenalJariwala
- GMOB9eCh01.pptDiunggah olehLoren Lordwell Moyani
- Adaptive Asset AllocationDiunggah olehTheng Roger
- e Upchaar1Diunggah olehdr.parneeta2854