Anda di halaman 1dari 55

DENTAL CASTING

ALLOYS
INTRODUCTION
In dentistry, metals represent one of the three
major classes of materials used for the reconstruction
of damaged or missing oral tissues. Although metals
are readily distinguished from ceramics and polymers.
The wide varieties of complex dental alloy
compositions consist of the following:
Dental amalgams containing the major elements
mercury, silver, tin, and copper.
Noble metal alloys in which the major elements
are some combination of gold, palladium, silver and
important secondary elements including copper,
platinum, tin, indium and gallium.
Base metal alloys with a major element of nickel,
cobalt, iron or titanium and many secondary
elements that are found in the alloy compositions.
HISTORY OF METALS IN DENTISTRY
Dentistry as a specialty is believed
to have begun about 3000 BC. Gold bands
and wires were used by the Phoenicians
after 2500 BC.
Modern dentistry began in 1728
when Fauchard published different
treatment modalities describing many types
of dental restorations, including a method
for the construction of artificial dentures
made from ivory. Gold shell crowns were
described by Mouton in 1746 but they were
not patented until in 1873 by Beers. In
1885 Logan patented porcelain fused to
platinum post replacing the unsatisfactory
wooden post previously used to build up
intra-radicular areas of teeth. In 1907 a
detached post crown was introduced which
was more easily adjustable.
Year Event
1907 Introduction of Lost-Wax Technique
1933 Replacement of Co-Cr for Gold in
Removable Partial Dentures
1950 Development of Resin Veneers for Gold Alloys
1959 Introduction of the Porcelain Fused-to-Metal
Technique
1968 Palladium-Based Alloys as Alternatives to Gold
Alloy
1971 Nickel-Based Alloys as Alternatives to Gold Alloys
1980s Introduction of All-Ceramic Technologies
1999 Gold Alloys as Alternatives to Palladium-Based
Alloys
1971 – THE GOLD STANDARD
The United States abandoned the gold
standard in 1971. Gold then became a commodity
freely traded on the open markets. As a result, the
price of gold increased steadily over the next nine
years. In response to the increasing price of gold,
new dental alloys were introduced through the
following changes:
In some alloys, gold was replaced with
palladium.
In other alloys, palladium eliminated gold
entirely.
Base metal alloys with nickel as the
major element eliminated the exclusive need for
noble metals.
KEY TERMS
Grain–A microscopic single crystal in the microstructure
of a metallic material.
Metal – An element whose atomic structure readily
loses electrons to form positively charged ions, and
which exhibits metallic bonding (through a spatial
extension of valence electrons), opacity, good light
reflectance from a polished surface and high electrical
and thermal conductivity.
Noble metal – which are highly resistant to oxidation
and dissolution in inorganic acids. Gold and platinum
group metals (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium,
iridium and osmium).
Base metal – A metal that readily oxidizes or dissolves
to release ions.
Alloy – A crystalline substance with metallic
properties that is composed of two or more
chemical elements, at least one of which is
metal.
Solid solution (metallic) – A solid crystalline
phase containing two or more elements, at least
one of which is a metal, that are intimately
combined at the atomic level.
Liquidus temperature – Temperature at which an
alloy begins to freeze on cooling or at which the
metal is completely molten on heating.
Solidus temperature – Temperature at which an
alloy becomes solid on cooling or at which the
metal begins to melt on heating.
PERIODIC TABLE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
AND EFFECT OF
NOBLE METALS AND
BASE METALS ON DENTAL
CASTING ALLOYS
NOBLE METALS
The noble metals have been the basis of inlays,
crowns and bridges because of their resistance to corrosion
in the oral cavity.
Gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium,
iridium, osmium, and silver are the eight noble metals.
However, in the oral cavity, silver is more reactive and
therefore is not considered as a noble metal.
Of the eight noble metals, four are of major
importance in dental casting alloys, i.e., gold, platinum,
palladium and silver. All four have a face-centered cubic
crystal structure and all are white coloured except for gold.
GOLD

Pure gold is a soft and


ductile metal with a yellow
“Gold” hue. It has a density
of 19.3 gms/cm3 , melting
point of 1063oC, boiling point
of 2970 oC and CTE of
14.2×10-6/°C. Gold has a
good luster and takes up a
high polish. It has good
chemical stability and does
not tarnish and corrode.
Gold content:
Traditionally the gold content of dental casting alloys
have been referred to in terms of:
• Karat
• Fineness
Karat:
It is the parts of pure gold in 24 parts of alloys.
For Eg: a) 24 Karat gold is pure gold
b) 22 Karat gold is 22 parts of pure gold
and remaining 2 parts of other metal.
The term Karat is rarely used to describe gold content in
current alloys.
Fineness:
Fineness of a gold alloy is the parts per thousand of
pure gold. Pure gold is 1000 fine. Thus, if ¾ of the gold
alloy is pure gold, it is said to be 750 fine.
SILVER
It is sometimes described
as the “Whitest” of all metals. It
whitens the alloy, thus helping
to counteract the reddish colour
of copper. To a slight extent it
increases strength and
hardness. In large amounts
however, it reduces tarnish
resistance. It has the lowest
density 10.4gms/cm3 and
melting point of 961oC, boiling
point of 2216 oC among the
four precious metals used in
dental casting alloys. Its CTE is
19.710-6/oC , which is
comparatively high.
PLATINUM

It increases the strength and


corrosion resistance. It also
increases the melting point
and has a whitening effect on
the alloy. It helps to reduce
the grain size.It has the
highest density of 21.45
gms/cm3 , highest melting
point of 1769oC, boiling point
of 4530 oC and the lowest
CTE 8.910-6/oC among the
four precious metals used in
dental casting alloys.
PALLADIUM

It is similar to platinum in its


effect. It hardens as well as
whitens the alloy. It also raises
the fusion temperature and
provides tarnish resistance. It
is less expensive than
platinum, thus reducing cost of
alloy. It has a density of
12.02gms/cm3. Palladium has
a higher melting point of
1552oC, boiling point of 3980
oC and lower CTE which is

11.810-6/oC, when compared


to gold.
IRIDIUM, RUTHENIUM
They help to decrease the grain size. They are added in
very small quantities (about 100 to 150 ppm). IRIDIUM
has a high melting point of 2454°C , boiling point of 5300
°C , density of 22.5gm/cm3 and CTE 6.810-6/oC.
RUTHENIUM has a melting point of 1966°C , boiling
point of 4500 °C , density of 12.44 gm/cm3 and CTE
8.310-6/oC
BASE METALS
These are non-noble metals. They are invaluable
components of dental casting alloys because of their
influences on physical properties, control of the amount and
type of oxidation, or their strengthening effect. Such metals
are reactive with their environment, and are referred to as
‘base metals’. Some of the base metals can be used to
protect an alloy from corrosion (passivation). Although they
are frequently referred as non precious, the preferred term is
base metal.
Examples of base metals are chromium, cobalt,
nickel, iron, copper, manganese etc.
COBALT

Imparts hardness,
strength and rigidity to
the alloy . It has a high
melting point of 1495°C
, boiling point of 2900
°C , density of 8.85
gm/cm3 and CTE
13.810-6/oC
NICKEL
Cobalt and nickel are
interchangeable.It decreases
strength, hardness, modulus
of elasticity and fusion
temperature. It increased
ductility. Bio-incompatibility
due to nickel, which is the
most common metal to
cause Contact Dermatitis. It
has a melting point of
1453°C , boiling point of
2730 °C , density of 8.9
gm/cm3 and CTE 13.310-
6/oC
CHROMIUM
Its passivating effect
ensures corrosion resistance.
The chromium content is
directly proportional to tarnish
and corrosion resistance. It
reduces the melting point. Along
with other elements, it also acts
in solid solution hardening.
Thirty percent chromium is
considered the upper limit for
attaining maximum mechanical
properties. It has melting point
of 1875°C , boiling point of
2665 °C , density of 7.19
gm/cm3 and CTE 6.210-6/ oC
COPPER
It is the principal hardener. It
reduces the melting point and
density of gold. If present in
sufficient quantity, it gives the
alloy a reddish colour. It also
helps to age harden gold alloys.
In greater amounts it reduces
resistance to tarnish and
corrosion of the gold alloy.
Therefore, the maximum content
should NOT exceed 16%. It has
melting point of 1083°C , boiling
point of 2595 °C , density of
8.96 gm/cm³ and CTE 16.5
10-6/°C .
ZINC
It acts as a scavenger for
oxygen. Without zinc the
silver in the alloy causes
absorption of oxygen
during melting. Later
during solidification, the
oxygen is rejected
producing gas porosities
in the casting. It has a
melting point of 420°C ,
boiling point of 906 °C ,
density of 7.133gm/cm3
and CTE 39.710-6/oC
MOLYBDENUM OR
TUNGSTEN

They are effective


hardeners. Molybdenum is
preferred as it reduces
ductility to a lesser extent
than tungsten.
Molybdenum refines grain
structure. It has melting
point of 2610°C , boiling
point of 5560 °C , density
of 10.22 gm/cm3 and CTE
4.9 10-6/oC
IRON,BERYLLIUM
They help to harden the metal ceramic gold - palladium
alloys, iron being the most effective. In addition, beryllium
reduces fusion temperature and refines grain structure . IRON
has melting point of 1527°C , boiling point of 3000 °C , density
of 7.87 gm/cm3 and CTE 12.3 10-6/oC .
GALLIUM

It is added to
compensate for the
decreased coefficient
of thermal expansion
that results when the
alloy is made silver
free. The elimination of
silver reduces the
tendency for green
stain at the margin of
the metal-porcelain
interface.
MANGANESE AND SILICON
Primarily oxide scavengers to prevent oxidation of
other elements during melting. They are also hardeners.
MANGANESE has melting point of 650°C , boiling point
of 1107 °C , density of 1.74 gm/cm3 and CTE 25.2 10-
6/oC , where as SILICON has melting point of 1410°C ,

boiling point of 2480 °C , density of 2.33 gm/cm3 and CTE


7.3 10-6/oC .
CARBON:
Carbon content is most
critical. Small amounts may
have a pronounced effect on
strength, hardness and
ductility. Carbon forms
carbides with any of the
metallic constituents which is
an important factor in
strengthening the alloy.
However when in excess it
increases brittleness. Thus,
control of carbon content in the
alloy is important. It has
melting point of 3700°C ,
boiling point of 4830 °C ,
density of 2.22 gm/cm3 and
CTE 6 10-6/oC .
BORON

It is a deoxidizer
and hardener, but
reduces ductility.
CLASSIFICATION OF DENTAL
CASTING ALLOYS
1. ALLOY TYPES BY FUNCTIONS:
In 1927, the Bureau of Standard established gold casting alloys, type
I to type IV according to dental function with hardness increasing from
type I to type IV.
Type I (Soft):
It is used for fabrication of small inlays, class III and class V
restorations which are not subjected to great stress . These alloys
are easily burnishable.
Type -II (Medium):
These are used for fabrication of inlays subjected to moderate stress,
thick 3/4 crowns, abutments, pontics, full crowns and soft saddles.
Type I and II are usually referred to as inlay gold.
Type -III (Hard):
It is used for fabrication of inlays subjected to high stress, thin 3/4
crowns, thin cast backing abutments, pontics, full crowns, denture
bases and short span FPDs . Type III alloys can be age hardened.
Type-IV (Extra hard):
It is used for fabrication of inlays subjected to high stress, denture
bases, bars and clasps, partial denture frameworks and long span
FPDs. These alloys can be age hardened by heat treatment.
Type III and Type IV gold alloys are generally called "Crown
and Bridge Alloys", although type IV alloy is used for high
stress applications such as RPD framework.
Later, in 1960, metal ceramic alloys were introduced and
removable partial denture alloys were added in this
classification.

Metal ceramic alloys (hard and extra hard):


It is suitable for veneering with dental porcelain, copings, thin
walled crowns, short span FPDs and long span FPDs. These
alloy vary greatly in composition and may be gold, palladium,
nickel or cobalt based.

Removable partial denture alloys :


It is used for removable partial denture frameworks. Now a
days, light weight, strong and less expensive nickel or cobalt
based have replaced type IV alloys .
2. ALLOY TYPES BY DESCRIPTION:
By description, these alloys are classified into

A) CROWN AND BRIDGE ALLOYS


This category of alloys include both noble and base metal
alloys that have been or potentially could be used in the
fabrication of full metal or partial veneers.
1. Noble metal alloys:
i) Gold based alloy - type III and type IV gold alloys ,
low gold alloys
ii) Non-gold based alloy-Silver -palladium alloy
2. Base metal alloys:
i) Nickel-based alloys
ii) Cobalt based alloys
3. Other alloys:
i) Copper-zinc with Indium and nickel
ii) Silver-indium with palladium
B) METAL CERAMIC ALLOY

1. Noble metal alloys for porcelain bonding:


i) Gold-platinum -palladium alloy
ii) Gold-palladium-silver alloy
iii) Gold-palladium alloy
iv) Palladium silver alloy
v) High palladium alloy

2. Base metal alloys for porcelain bonding:


i) Nickel -chromium alloy
ii) Cobalt-chromium alloy
C) REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE ALLOY

Although type-IV noble metal alloy may be used,


majority of removable partial framework are
made from base metal alloys:

1. Cobalt-chromium alloy
2. Nickel-chromium alloy
3. Cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy
4. Silver-palladium alloy
5. Aluminum -bronze alloy
3.ALLOY TYPE BY NOBILITY
High noble, noble, and predominantly base metal.

Alloy Classification of the American Dental


Association (1984)
ALLOY TYPE TOTAL NOBLE METAL CONTENT
Contains > 40 wt% Au and > 60
High noble metal wt% of the noble metal elements
(Au + Ir + Os + Pd + Pt + Rh + Ru)

Noble metal Contains > 25 wt % of the noble


metal elements
Predominantly base metal Contains < 25 wt % of the noble
metal elements
Classification of alloys for All-Metal restorations, metal ceramic restorations, and
frameworks for removable partial dentures.
Alloy type All-metal Metal-ceramic Removable partial
dentures
High noble Au-Ag-Cu-Pd Au-Pt-Pd Au-Ag-Cu-Pd
Metal ceramic alloys Au-Pd-Ag (5-12wt% Ag)
Au-Pd-Ag (>12wt%Ag)

Au-Pd (no Ag)


Noble Ag-Pd-Au-Cu Pd-Au (no Ag) Ag-Pd-Au-Cu
Ag-Pd Pd-Au-Ag Ag-Pd
Metal-ceramic alloys Pd-Ag
Pd-Cu
Pd-Co
Pd-Ga-Ag
Base Metal Pure Ti Pure Ti Pure Ti
Ti-Al-V Ti-Al-V Ti-Al-V
Ni-Cr-Mo-Be Ni-Cr-Mo-Be Ni-Cr-Mo-Be
Ni-Cr-Mo Ni-Cr-Mo Ni-Cr-Mo
Co-Cr-Mo Co-Cr-Mo Co-Cr-Mo
Co-Cr-W Co-Cr-W Co-Cr-W
Al bronze
4. ALLOY TYPE BY MAJOR ELEMENTS: Gold-based,
palladium-based, silver-based, nickel-based, cobalt-based
and titanium-based .

5. ALLOY TYPE BY PRINCIPAL THREE ELEMENTS: Such


as Au-Pd-Ag, Pd-Ag-Sn, Ni-Cr-Be, Co-Cr-Mo, Ti-Al-V and
Fe-Ni-Cr.

(If two metals are present, a binary alloy is formed; if three


or four metals are present, ternary and quaternary alloys,
respectively, are produced and so on.)

6. ALLOY TYPE BY DOMINANT PHASE SYSTEM: Single


phase [isomorphous], eutectic, peritectic and intermetallic.
DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF DENTAL CASTING
ALLOYS
Biocompatibility
Ease of melting
Ease of casting
Ease of brazing (soldering)
Ease of polishing
Little solidification shrinkage
Minimal reactivity with the mold material
Good wear resistance
High strength
Excellent corrosion resistance
Porcelain Bonding
To achieve a sound chemical bond to
ceramic veneering materials, a substrate
metal must be able to form a thin, adherent
oxide, preferably one that is light in color so
that it does not interfere with the aesthetic
potential of the ceramic. The metal must have
a thermal expansion/contraction coefficient
that is closely matched to that of the
porcelain.
GOLD CASTING ALLOYS
GOLD CASTING ALLOYS:

ADA specification No. 5 classify dental gold casting


alloys as:
1. High Gold Alloys Type I
Inlay Gold Alloy
Type II

Type III Crown & Bridge Alloy


Type IV

2. Low Gold Alloys

3. White Gold Alloys


HIGH GOLD ALLOY:
These alloys contain 70% by weight or more of gold
palladium and platinum. ADA specification No.5 divides this
into four depending upon mechanical properties.

Type I (Soft):-

They are weak, soft and highly ductile, useful only in


areas of low occlusal stress designed for simple inlays such
as used in class I, III & V cavities.
These alloys have a high ductility so they can be
burnished easily. Such a characteristic is important since
these alloys are designed to be used in conjunction with a
direct wax pattern technique. Since such a technique
occasionally results in margins that are less than ideal it is
necessary to use a metal that can be burnished. At present,
these are used very rarely.
PROPERTIES

1. Hardness VHN (50 – 90)


2. Tensile Strength Quite Low
276 MPa or 40,000 PSi
3. Yield Strength 180 MPa or 26,000 PSi
4. Linear Casting Shrinkage 1.56% (according to
Anusavice)
5. Elongation or ductility 46% - William O Brien
18% - Anusavice

COMPOSITION

Au Ag Cu Pt Pd Zn&Ga
83% 10% 6% - 0.5% balance
Type II (Medium):-
These are used for conventional inlay or onlay restorations
subject to moderate stress, thick three quarter crowns, pontics and
full crowns. These are harder and have good strength.
Ductility is almost same as that of type I alloy however, yield
strength is higher. Since burnishability is a function of ductility and
yield strength, greater effort is required to deform the alloy. They
are less yellow in color due to less gold.
Properties:
1. Hardness VHN (90-120)
2. Tensile Strength 345 MPa
3. Yield Strength 300 MPa
4. Linear Casting Shrinkage 1.37%
5. Elongation 40.5% - William O Brien
10% - Anusavice
Composition:
Au Ag Cu Pt Pd Zn&Ga
77% 14% 7% - 1% balance
Type III (Hard):

Inlays subject to high stress and for crown and bridge in


contrast to type I and type II, this type can be age hardened.
The type III alloy, burnishing is less important than strength.

Properties:
1. Hardness(VHN) 120 – 150
2. Tensile Strength 360 MPa
3. Yield Strength 331 MPa
4. Linear Casting Shrinkage 1.42%
5. Elongation or ductility 39.4% - William O Brien
5% - Anusavice

Composition:
Au Ag Cu Pt Pd Zn&Ga
75% 11% 9% - 3.5% balance
Type IV (Extra Hard):

These are used in areas of very high stress, crowns and


long span bridges. It has lowest gold content of all four type (Less
than 70%) but has the highest percentage of silver, copper,
platinium and Palladium. It is most responsive to heat treatment
and yield strength but lowers ductility.

Properties:
1. Hardness VHN (150-200)
2. Tensile Strength 462 MPa
3. Yield Strength 703 MPa
4. Linear Casting Shrinkage 2.30%
5. Elongation or ductility 17% - William O Brien
3% - Anusavice

Composition:
Au Ag Cu Pt Pd Zn&Ga
56% 25% 14% - 4% balance
HEAT TREATMENT OF GOLD ALLOYS:

Heat treatment of alloys is done in order to


alter its mechanical properties.
Gold alloys can be heat treated if it contains
sufficient amount of copper. Only type III and type
IV gold alloys can be heat-treated.

There are two types of heat treatment.

1. Softening Heat Treatment (Solution heat treatment)

2. Hardening Heat Treatment (Age hardening)


1. SOFTENING HEAT TEMPERATURE

Softening heat treatment increased ductility, but


reduces tensile strength, proportional limit, and hardness.
Indications:
It is indicated for appliances that are to be grounded,
shaped, or otherwise cold worked in or outside the mouth.
Method:
The casting is placed in an electric furnace for 10
minutes at a temperature of 700oC and then it is quenched in
water. During this period, all intermediate phases are
presumably changed to a disordered solid solution, and the
rapid quenching prevents ordering from occurring during
cooling.
Each alloy has its optimum temperature. The
manufacturer should specify the most favorable temperature
and time.
2. HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT

Hardening heat treatment increases strength,


proportional limit, and hardness, but decreases ductility. It is
the copper present in gold alloys, which helps in the age
hardening process.
Indications:
It is indicated for metallic partial dentures, saddles,
bridges and other similar structures. It is not employed for
smaller structures such as inlays.
Method:
It is done by “soaking” or ageing the casting at a
specific temperature for a definite time, usually 15 to 30
minutes. It is then water quenched. The aging temperature
depends on the alloy composition but is generally between
200°C and 450°C. During this period, the intermediate
phases are changed to an ordered solid solution.
The proper time and temperature for age
hardening an alloy are specified by the
manufacturer.
Ideally, before age hardening an alloy, it
should first be subjected to a softening heat
treatment to relieve all strain hardening and to start
the age hardening treatment when the alloy is in a
disordered solid solution. This allows better control
of the hardening process.