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Analytical Chemistry

Quantitative Analytical Methods:

1. Gravimetric methods
2. Volumetric methods
3. Electroanalytical methods
4. Spectroscopic methods
Analytical Chemistry
• Gravimetric methods - determine the mass of the
analyte or some compound chemically related to it.
• Volumetric methods - the volume of a solution
containing sufficient reagent to react completely with the
analyte is measured.
• Electroanalytical methods - involve the measurement of
such electrical properties as voltage, current, resistance,
and quantity of electrical charge.
• Spectroscopic methods - are based on measurement of
the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and
analyte atoms or molecules or on the production of such
radiation by analytes.
Gravimetric Methods
• Four Fundamental Types of Gravimetric Analysis:
– Physical Gravimetry - involves the physical
separation and classification of matter in
environmental samples based on volatility and
particle size (e.g., total suspended solids).
– Thermogravimetry - samples are heated and
changes in sample mass are recorded.
– Precipitative Gravimetric Analysis - relies on the
chemical precipitation of an analyte
– Electrodeposition - involves the electrochemical
reduction of metal ions at a cathode, and
simultaneous deposition of the ions on the
cathode.
• Solubility - the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous
chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a
liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution.
• Concentration – the measure of how much of a given
substance is mixed with another substance.
• Saturation – the point at which a solution of a
substance cannot dissolve more of that substance
and additional amounts will appear as precipitate.
• Mole – is a unit of measurement for the amount of
substance or chemical amount. It is one of the base
units in the International System of Units and has the
unit symbol “mol”.
• Molarity, M – the measure of the concentration of a
solute in a solution. (moles solute/li. solution)
• Normality, N – the number of gram equivalent
weight of solute per liter of solution.
• Molality, m– denotes the number of moles of solute
per kilogram of solvent. (moles/kg)
• Percent by weight, (%wt/wt) – (mass percentage or
mass fraction) denotes the mass of a substance in a
mixture as the percentage of the mass of the entire
mixture
• Parts per million – (ppm) denotes the amount of a
given substance in a total amount of 1,000,000
regardless of the units of measure used as long as
they are the same. Other units are ppb, ppt.
• Percent by volume, (%vol/vol) – (volume – volume
percentage) describes the volume of the solute in ml
per 100 ml of the resulting solution.
• Weight/volume basis, (%wt/vol) – grams of analyte
per 100 ml of resulting solution.
Example 1:
Find the mass percentages (mass %) of Na, H, C,
and O in sodium hydrogen carbonate
(NaHCO3).
Atomic masses:
Na is 22.99
H is 1.01
C is 12.01
O is 16.00
Example 2:
You have 40.0ml of C6H5CH3 that is put into
75.0ml of C6H6, what is the percent volume of
C6H5CH3?
Example 3:
Find the number of moles and millimoles of
benzole acid (MW = 122.1 g/mole) that are
contained in 2.00 g of the pure acid.
Example 4:
Calculate the molar concentration of ethanol in
an aqueous solution that contains 2.30 g of
C2H5OH (46.07 g/mol) in 3.50 L of solution.