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Values Education

1. Explain the philosophy and the nature of the human person
2. Apply the Divine Law as the ultimate basis of all moral and
socio-cultural values
3. Analyze the hierarchy of values along with various cultural
4. Locate the basis of VE in the Philippine constitution
5. Analyze the Univerrsal Declaration of Human Rights in Value
development in relation to the Filipino learner and his/her
valuing process
6. Demonstrate strategies to attain the goals of the national VE
Definition of terms:
A. Philosophy- is a science whose essence is founded on reason,
experience, reflection, intuition, meditation, imagination, and
speculation that leads to critical thinking which embraces
questioning, analyzing, criticizing, synthesizing, evaluating, and
judging a given phenomenon of reality.
-The love of exercising one’s curiosity and intelligence.

B. Philosophy of the human person – is an endeavor which is not

an end in itself but means to an end.
-it is one’s desire to know who and what man is
-it deals with the origin of human life, the nature of the
human life, and the reality of the human existence.
Does the philosophy of the human person limit only to the
study of the human person?
C. Nature of the Human
human nature refers to anything exclusively human
which man intrinsically possesses right at his birth and
it is universal and static.
Three-fold Level of Human Nature
1. somatic level – refers the body, substance, constitution, or
stuff and secondarily to the bodily structure and color of the human
person, which are conditioned by human’s culture and
2. behavioral level – refers to the mode of acting of every
3. attitudinal level – refers to the mental action of every human
to a given stimulus or the position of every individual concerning
his/her opinion, feeling, or mood.
Valuing the human person
a. human being is the substantial union of body and soul
b. man is a social being
c. man is a historical being
d. man is an acting being
Nature of man Knowing faculties Appetitive faculties
Material (Body) External senses basic function Emotions
animal Love-hatred
Smell Nutrition Desire-aversion
Taste nutrition Joy-sorrow
Touch nutrition Hope-despair
Hearing cognition Courage-fear,
Sight cognition Anger

Internal senses

Consciousness- awareness of sensation, synthesis

of external sense: perception
Imagination-construction and reproduction of
Memory-recognition of objects in the past
Instinct-tending to do good and well-being aversion
to evil and danger
Nature of man Knowing faculties Appetitive faculties

Spiritual (Soul) Intellect (conscience) Will

Function – to think Function – to do/act
Purpose – to know Purpose – to choose/love
Goal – truth goal – goodness

Highest human fulfillment –

Highest human fulfillment – wisdom virtue
Self and the
significant others
Self is the personal characteristics, individual
personality, roles and social status in life.
Self concept
refers to an individual’s overall perceptions of his/her
abilities, behavior, and personality

An organized set of characteristics that the individual

perceives as being peculiar to him/her

It is affected by his or her environment and the

significant others
the perceived self
 Alsoknown as the real self – the self as a result of
 Itis composed of a set of self-cognitions regarding
one’s traits, competencies, and values.

How is it reinforced?

The three categories of self-perception are traits,

competencies, and values.
the ideal self
Self discrepancies

The greater the discrepancy between the real self and

the ideal self, the more maladjusted is the person.
The self discrepancy Theory (Higgins 1987)

The greater the discrepancy between our actual self

and our ought self, the greater will be our feelings of
guilt and self-contempt. On the other hand, the
greater discrepancy between our actual self and our
ideal self, the greater will be our feelings of frustration,
disappointment, and dissatisfaction.