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MOLE AND ITS APPLICATION IN

SOLVING NUMERICAL PROBLEMS


INVOLVING CHEMICAL EQUATION
5. SOLVE NUMERICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL
REACTIONS
Calculation steps :
S1 Write a balanced equation
S2 Write the information from the question above the equation
S3 Write information from the chemical equation below the equation
(information about the number of moles of reactants/products)
S4 Change the information in S2 into moles by using the
method shown in the chart.
S5 Use the relationship between number of moles of substance
involved in S3 to find the answer

S6 Change the information to the unit required using the chart


Mass in gram

X (RAM/RMM/RFM) gmol-1 ÷ (RAM/RMM/RFM) gmol-1

n = MV ÷ 24dm3mol-1 /22.4 dm3mol-1


1000
Concentration in
Number of Volume of
mol dm-3 (M) and
mole (n) gas in dm3
volume in cm3(V) n = MV
1000
x 24dm3mol-1 /22.4 dm3mol-1
Exercise :

1) Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 ,
Calculate the mass of zinc required to react with excess hydrochloric acid to
produce 6dm3 hydrogen gas at room conditions.
[ RAM Zn= 65 , Cl = 35.5 , molar volume :24 dm3mol-1 at room condition.]

?g 6 dm3
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl 2 + H2
1 mol 1 mol

Mol of H2 = 6 dm3/ 24 dm3 mol-1 = 0.25 mol

From the equation, 1 mol H2 : 1 mol Zn

0.25 mol H2 : 0.25 mol Zn

Mass of Zn = 0.25 mol x 65 gmol -1 = 16.25 g


2) 4K + O 2 → 2 K 2O
Calculate the mass of potassium required to produce 23.5 g of potassium oxide.
[RAM K= 39 , O= 16]

?g 23.5 g
4K + O2 → 2 K2O

4 mol 2 mol

Mole of K2O = 23.5 g / [2x39 + 16] gmol-1 = 0.25

From the equation : 2 mol K2O : 4 mol K

0.25 mol K2O : 0.5 mol K

Mass of K = 0.5 mol x 39gmol- = 19.5 g


3) H2O2 → H2O + O2
i) Balance the equation above.
ii) Calculate the number of moles H2O2 that decomposes if 11.2 dm3
oxygen gas is colleted at STP.
(RAM: H,1: O,16,Molar volume :22.4dm3 mol-1 at STP
? Mol 11.2 dm3
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2

2 mol 1 mol

Mol of O2 = 11.2 dm3/ 22.4 dm3 mol-1 = 0.5

From the equation , 1 mol O2 : 2 mol H2O2

0.5 mol O2 : 1 mol H2O2


4) 8.0 g of copper (ll) oxide powder is added to excess dilute nitric acid and heated.
Calculate the mass of Copper (ll) nitrate produced.
(JAR: N=14, O=16, Cu=64)

8g ?g
CuO + 2HNO3 Cu(NO3 )2 + H2O
1 mol 1 mol

Mol of CuO = 8 g/ [ 64 + 16 ] gmol-1 = 0.1 mol

From the equation , 1 mol CuO : 1 mol Cu(NO 3 )2

0.1 mol CuO : 0.1 mol Cu(NO3 )2

Mass of Cu(NO3 )2 = 0.1mol x 188 gmol-1= 18.8 g


5) 100 cm3 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is reacted with powdered magnesium until
excess. Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas released at room temperature.
( 1 mol of gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3mol-1 at room conditions)

V= 100 cm3
M= 0.2 mol dm-3 excess ? dm3
2HCl + Mg → MgCl 2 + H2
2 mol 1 mol

Mol of HCl = 100 x 0.2 = 0.02 mol


1000

From the equation :


2 mol HCl : 1 mol H2

0.02 mol HCl : 0.01 mol H2

Volume of H2 = 0.01 mol x 24 dm3mol-1 = 0.24 dm3


6) 25 cm3 sulfuric acid is needed to neutralize 50 cm31 moldm-3of Potassium
hydroxide solution. Calculate the concentration of sulfuric acid.

V= 25 cm3 V= 50 cm3
M= ? M= 1 moldm-3
H2SO4 + 2KOH → K 2SO4 + 2H2O
1 mol 2 mol

Mol of KOH = 50 x 1 = 0.05 mol


1000
From the equation: 2 mol KOH : 1 mol H2SO4

0.05 mol KOH : 0.025 mol H2SO4

Concentration H2SO4 : 25 x M = 0.025


1000
M = 1 moldm-3
7) 10 g of Magnesium oxide is added to 100 cm3 hydrochloric acid 2.0 mol dm-3 .
Calculate the mass of Magnesium Oxide that has not reacted.
(RAM: O=16, Mg=24)
10g 100cm3
?g exc2 moldm-3
MgO + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2
1 mol 2 mol

Mol HCl = 100 x 2 = 0.2 mol HCl


1000
From the Equation 2 mol HCl : 1 mol MgO

0.2 mol HCl : 0.1 mol MgO

Mass of MgO that has reacted = 0.1 x 40 = 4 g

Mass of MgO that has not reacted = 10 -4 = 6 g


8) 50 cm3 of lead (II) nitrate solution 0.5 mol dm-3 is added to excess of
sodium sulphate. Calculate the mass of Lead(ll) sulphate precipitate formed.

7.58 g
9) 1.6 g of copper(ll) oxide is needed 40 cm3 of dilute of hydrochloric acid for
complete neutralization. Calculate the concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid.

1 moldm-3

10) 0.1 mol dm-3 of silver nitrate solution is mixed with excess of magnesium powder.
0.54 g of Silver precipitate is formed. Calculate the volume of Silver Nitrate is used.

50 cm3