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Study Cases : Retail Internationalization

Wal- Mart
Carrefour
Tesco
SIAPA MEREKA?
MEREKA ADALAH 3 PERUSAHAAN RITEL TERBAIK DI NEGARANYA
Wal- Mart
 Didirikan oleh Sam Walton di Tahun 1962, dan mulai mencatatkan sahamnya pada
tahun 1972 di Bursa Saham New York.
 Walmart menjual berbagai produk seperti sayuran, buah-buahan, daging, obat-
obatan, CD music, computer, hingga ban mobil.
 Berdasarkan pendapatannya wal-mart adalah perusahaan public terbesar di dunia
versi fortune global 500 dan majalah fortune.
 Total toko yang dimiliki Walmart mencapai 10.800
 Walmart juga memiliki karyawan lebih 1.3 juta orang di seluruh dunia
 Walmart beroperasi di berbagai negara di luar US dengan nama yang berbeda :di
Argentina, Brazil, & Britania Raya Walmart dikenal dengan nama ASDA, di Jepang
disebut Seiyu, di Kanada & Mexico dinamai Walmex.
 Sam Walton memiliki visi bagi Walmart, yaitu memberi nilai bagi konsumen dengan
menerapkan startegi “Everyday Low Price” dan memberikan produk dengan
kualitas tinggi dengan merk terkenal, namun dengan harga yang paling murah.
 Salah satu kelebihan Walmart dibandingkan kompetitor adalah Walmart selalu
cepat dan tanggap dalam mengontrol pergudangan dan persediaan barang mereka
sehingga Walmart tidak kehabisan produk atau kelebihan produk
Carrefour
 Didirikan oleh Marcel Fournier dan Louis Deforey pada tahun 1957.
 Kelompok Carrefour memperkenalkan konsep hypermarket pertama kalinya.
 Merupakan perusahaan ritel terbesar kedua di dunia setelah Walmart.
 Carrefour di Indonesia hadir sejak tahun 1996 dengan gerai pertama di
Cempaka Putih pada bulan oktober 1998.
 Carrefour menawarkan konsep “one stop shopping” yang menawarkan tempat
pilihan dengan produk yang beragam, harga murah, juga memberikan
pelayanan terbaik sehingga melebihi harapan pelanggan.
 Memiliki jumlah karyawan sebanyak 456,295 di tahun 2006
 Sejak 15 Oktober 2012, Carrefour Indonesia melakukan upaya mengurangi
kantong plastic bagi konsumen, sebagai bagian dari gerakan peduli
lingkungan.
Tesco

 Tesco adalah supermarket internasional asal Inggris dan Ritel ketiga terbesar
di dunia setelah Walmart & Carrefour.
 Didirikan oleh Jack Cohen pada tahun 1919 di Chesthunt, Inggris
 Kelompok Tesco memperkenalkan konsep toko serba ada. Mereka membuka
supermarket pertamanya pada 1947 di St. Albans, dekat London, Inggris.
 Memiliki karyawan sebanyak 273.028 di tahun 2007 diseluruh dunia.
 Produk yang diperdagangkan berupa Grosir Barang Konsumen, finansial,
telekomunikasi
Failure Cases of Retail Internationalization Wal-Mart
 Wal-mart entered Germany at the end of 1997 with purchase of 21 existing westkauf stores and
shortly thereafter 74 interspar hypermarkets.
 Wal-mart’s purchase of two existing German retailers was not unusual even though it only gave wal-
mart a 3% share in the German retail market sector
 Many of the stores purchased were also outside of town centers.
 Germany is also the most competitive European market with strong and well established hard
discounters, heavy government regulations, and strong workers unions.
 Inability to compete on price and German competitors were privately owned
 Wal-mart was also erred in misreading the German’s expectations for CS. “Smile”
 Wal-mart was also unable to adjust to the social norms of a German labor force, including assigning
a director over German labor interest who spoke no German.
 In July of 2006, Wal-Mart Sold their 85 German stores to powerful Geman retailer Metro AG
 Forming a Joint venture in 1998, wal-mart operated 16 stores in South Korea
 Wal-mart failed to adequately adapt to these differences in taste.
 Wal-mart also lacked diversification of investment in their joint-venture arrangement within South
Korea. A country dominated by family controlled conglomerates with interest in manufacturing,
retailing, and real estate. In May of 2006, wal-mart sold its 16 stores to south Korea’s largest
discount retailer, E-Mart owned Shinsegae.
Failure Cases of Retail Internationalization Carrefour
 Entering in Japanese Market in 2000 with eight stores, Carrefour is significant as the
greenfield wholly owned international entrant.
 Consumers anticipated Carrefour would represent luxury French products for which there was
a demand.
 Carrefour also miscalculated the desire for service and appearance to the Japanese
consumer. Japanese consumers are relatively price-incentive and value a fashionable store
atmosphere and location, As well as higher customer service, over lower price.
 Carrefour was unable to achieve any competitive advantage on pricing. Carrefour also faced
distribution and locational challenge within Japan.
 In march 2005, Carrefour sold their 8 brand new stores to Japan number one retailer Aeon.
 Carrefour entered with store in Philadelphia in 1988, at the time of their entry, many of
innovations of Carrefour’s hypermarket format were not unique or significant to American
consumers.
 At the time, the American market had also not yet adapted to the concept of purchasing food
items and non-food items at the same store.
 Carrefour also faced employee union resistance which directly resulted in negative public
opinions towards the company brand.
 Carrefour closed their U.S operations in late 1993.
Failure Cases of Retail Internationalization Tesco
 In the late 1970’s Tesco initially purchased a food retailer as a way into the retail market in Ireland.
 They neglected to adapt to local Irish tastes and suppliers which resulted in a general distrust on the
part of the local consumers due to the fact there were few Irish product offered for sale.
 Like Wal-Mart would do in Germany, they also made a poor choice in their wholly owned purchase as
the stores they acquired were mostly in poor, less densely populated locations not well suited for
Tesco’s product.
 Tesco sold their stores to an Irish supermarket chain in 1986.
 Interestingly, Tesco re-entered The Irish market in 1997 with the purchase of another food retailer,
this time securing the position as largest food retailer in Ireland with 109 stores.
 Although, cautious initially to not repeat errors which led to customers distrusting Tesco brand, the
company again failed meet customers expectations. Legal problems concerning female employees
dress code and a revelation that the company was regularly overcharging customers in error and not
fully refunding the charges created new distrust for Tesco on the part of the Irish Consumers.
 In 1992, Tesco attempted entry into the French market with the purchase of 85 percent of small
regional chain, in hopes of expanding it into a national wide brand.
 Tesco was handicapped by their lacked of experience in global markets.
 Tesco Finally selling the chain of 90 stores to Promodes in 1997.
IDENTIFIKASI KEGAGALAN DARI MEREKA?
Retailer Country Of Years in Factors for Exit
Entry Market

Wal-Mart Germany 9 Poor Entry Strategy : wholly owned instead of joint


venture
Inward Focus : prevented market Adaptation
South Korea 8 Poor Entry Strategy : weak joint Venture – Inward Focus :
prevented market adaptation

Carrefour Japan 5 Poor Entry Strategy : Split locations for loss of


distribution advantages
Inward Focus : prevented market adaptation

US 5 Poor Global Strategy : not Innovative in US marketplace


Inward Focus : unable to adapt to US consumers

Tesco Ireland* 8 Poor Entry Strategy : failed selection of wholly owned


stores
Inward focus : unable to adapt to Irish VS UK consumers
France 5 Inward Focus : lack of experience for market adaptation
and lack of global strategy
Apa Pelajaran Yang dapat kita ambil ?

 Harus mampu beradaptasi dengan Kultur dan Ekspektasi Pasar yang dituju
 Mencapai Keunggulan Kompetitif di Pasar Baru
 Memiliki Strategi dan Pola Pikir Global