Anda di halaman 1dari 52


1.Crystal Structures
2.Solidification and Crystal Defects
in Solids
3.Heat Treatments
4.Electrical Properties of Materials
5.Magnetic Properties of Materials

 Chapter 3
Crystal Structures
What do I need to know?
Main Metallic Crystal
Unit Lattices and Bravais
Density Tool Box
Close-packed Crystal
Main Metallic Crystal Structures
 BCC (α­Fe , Na, Li and K)
Co o rdinatio n Numbe r =  8
Effe c tive  numbe r o f ato ms =  2
Lattic e  Parame te r a =  4R/√3
Frac tio n o f Unit Ce ll that is o c c upie d 
by ato ms by Vo lume
 APF = Volume of Atoms/Volume of Unit 
 APF = 0.68
Main Metallic Crystal Structures
 FCC (γ­Fe , Au, Ag, Pt)
Co o rdinatio n Numbe r =  12
Effe c tive  numbe r o f ato ms =  4
Lattic e  Parame te r a =  4R/√2
Frac tio n o f Unit Ce ll that is o c c upie d 
by ato ms by Vo lume
 APF = Volume of Atoms/Volume of Unit 
 APF = 0.74
Main Metallic Crystal Structures
 HCP (C, Cd, Co, Zn)
Co o rdinatio n Numbe r =  12
Effe c tive  numbe r o f ato ms =  6
Lattic e  Parame te r a =  2R & c  =  
Frac tio n o f Unit Ce ll that is o c c upie d 
by ato ms by Vo lume
 APF = Volume of Atoms/Volume of Unit 
 APF = 0.74
Main Metallic Crystal Structures
 Examples
1.Calculate the radius of an iridium atom. Ir has
an FCC crystal structure and a density of
22.4g/cm3 and an atomic weight of
192.2g/mol (R = 0.136nm)
 Crystal
structure transformation in
materials due to temperature or
pressure change
 Fe
 @ Room Temperature - BCC
 Above 727°C – FCC

 Above 1394°C – BCC

 @ Room Temperature – HCP
 @ Very high pressures and temperatures –

Diamond Cubic
Unit and Bravais Lattices
 14 Bravais lattices (RELAX you don’t have to
know them all!)
 These include the geometrical shape of lattice
and atom placement
 Cubic, Tetragonal, Hexagonal, Orthorhombic,
Monoclinic, Rhombohedral and Triclinic
 4 Types of unit lattices
 Only concerned with placement of atoms in lattice
 Simple
 Body-centred

 Face centered

 End-centred
Density Tool Box
 Volumetric Density of Materials
ρv= (NR)(MR)/ [(Vcell )(NA)] ( g / cm 3 )
 Planar Atomic Density
ρp= (NR(intersected atoms) )/Aplane
( atoms / mm 2 )
 Linear Atomic Density
ρl= (NR(atom diameters on line) )/Lline
( atoms / mm )

Density Tool Box
 Examples
1.Consider the FCC crystal structure of Al.
Determine the planar atomic density of the
(111) plane. (0.91)
2.Cobalt has an HCP crystal structure with
an atomic radius of 0.1253nm and a
c/a ratio of 1.623.
a)Compute the volume of the unit cell
for Co V = 0.0664nm3
b)Explain in your own words why the
c/a ratio in question a is not equal
to the theoretical value of 1.633.
Close-Packed Crystal Structures
 FCC and HCP are both close-packed
(APF 0.74)
 Closely packed plane has the highest
planar density
 Packing sequence differs
 FCC has more closely packed planes
than HCP and BCC does not have a
close packed plane
Summary: Tips and Further Examples
 Exam questions will most likely be more
focused on calculations than the theory of
this chapter
 Familiarise yourself with the sketches of FCC,
 If you can sketch it, CN, Atoms per unit
cell and APF can be UNDERSTOOD
 Principle for Ionic crystals are similar just note
that the cation and anion valences HAVE TO
 Prove to yourself that the c/a ratio = 1.633 for
an ideal HCP crystal
 Chapter 4
Crystal Structures
What do I need to know?
Process of Solidification
 Polycrystalline Metals (Sketch ingot
solidification mechanism)
 Single Crystals (Chozkralski process)

Defects in Solids
 Influencing factors
 Types of Defects

Calculating Grain Size

Process of Solidification
 Heat is extracted from
 mold walls (high cooling
 rate, small grains)
 Towards centre of ingot
 molten metal starts to
 cool (columnar zone)
 Centre of ingot, last
 metal solidifies (large equiaxed
 grains)

Defects in Solids
 Influencing Factors
 Mechanical Properties
 Ductility
 Electrical Properties
 Conductivity
 Heat conductivity ability

 Diffusion of atoms
 Corrosion resistance
 Types of Defects
 Microdefects (point defects, line defects and
surface defects)
 Macrodefects (Cracks, pores, inclusions and blow
Defects in Solids
 Microdefects – Point Defects
 Vacancies
 Nc = Ne(-Qv/kT)
 Self-interstitial Defects
 Impurities
 Most materials are used in alloy form
 Simplest alloy is that of solid solution

 Substitutional (Alloying atoms replaces that

of paremt atoms)
 Interstitial (Alloying atoms positions between

parent atoms)
 Excess alloying elements above saturation limit –

 two-phase solid
 Solid solution also depends on Hume-Rothery

Defects in Solids
 Microdefects – Point Defects
 Hume-Rothery Criteria
 Rparent and Ralloy difference < 15%
 Parent and alloy crystal structure must be
 Electron negativity of 2 elements must be about

 2 Elements must have the same number of

valence electrons
 Schottky Defects (Ceramics)
 Missing cation AND anion
 Frenkel Defects (Ceramics)
 Cation vacancy

Defects in Solids
 Formation of Point Defects
 Vacancies
 During solidification
 Rapid cooling

 Cold work

 Radioactive bombardment

 Self-interstitial Atoms
 Radioactive bombardment
 Impurities
 Solid solutions
 Diffusion of rogue species

Defects in Solids
 Microdefects – Line defects
 Two primary types
 Screw defects (Forms through shear)
 Edge dislocation

 ⥜ - Positive dislocation

 ⥜ - Negative dislocation

 Formation of Edge dislocations (Usually forms

through tension)
 Solidification

 Cold work (Enhances slip of dislocations on

close-packed planes)
 Vacancy condensation

Defects in Solids
 Microdefects – Surface defects
 Grain boundaries
 Due to neighboring grains with different
geometrical orientation
 Grain boundary is area of high energy capacity

 Always present in polycrystalline materials/alloys

 Twinning
 Plane that has a mirror image
 Forms through cold work (mechanical twins) or

during annealing (annealed twins)

Defects in Solids
 Macrodefects
 Cracks
 Due to rapid cooling during solidification
 Due to mechanical deformation

 Pores or blow holes

 Due to decrease in gaseous solubility in the
molten metal, gas escapes through partially
solidified surface
 Inclusions
 Rogue particles that intrude material during
Calculating Grain Size
 N = 2n-1
N = Average number of grains per square inch
 n = Grain size number
 Examples
1.For an ASTM grain size of 6, how many grains
would there be per square inch at
a)100X? (32)
b)Without any magnification? (320 000)
2.Determine the ASTM grain size number if 25
grains per square inch are measured at a
magnification of 75. (4.8)

Another Example
3.Calculate the fraction of atom sites that are
vacant for Pbat its melting temperature of
327°C. Assume an energy for vacancy
formation of 0.55eV/atoms. (2.41x10-5 )

Summary: Tips
 This chapter contains mainly theory but the
concepts are of utter importance
 Expect a few graphs in the exam on this
 Number of calculations in this chapter will
probably be limited

 Chapter 9
Heat Treatment
What do I need to know?
 Fe-C phase system
 Interpretation of binary phase diagram
 Phases present at specific temperature and

 Lever-rule for calculating percentage of different

phases at temperatures and compositions

 Phase transformations (peritectic, eutectic,

eutectoid and peritectoid reactions)

 Equilibrium phases and reactions

 Non-equilibruim phases

 Heat treatments and microstructures

Heat Treatment
 Fe-C phase system  Only to be used for
 equilibrium cooling
 Phase diagram shows
all of the reactions,
 compositions and
 Phases with
equilibrium cooling
 Ferrite,
 and pearlite

Heat Treatment
 Fe-C phase system Examples
1.By using the Fe-C phase diagram, answer the
following questions applicable to a 0.5%C
hypoeutectoid steel that is cooled slowly
from 950°C to just below 727°C.
a)Calculate the amount of proeutectoid ferrite in
the steel (38.71%)
b)Calculate the amounts of eutectoid ferrite and
eutectoid cementite in the steel (54.17%
and 7.1%)

Heat Treatment
 Fe-C phase system Examples
2.Determine the chemical compositions of steels
containing the following microstructural
components after cooling
a)92% Ferrite and 8% Cementite (0.559%C)
b)48.2% Proeutectoid ferrite (0.426% C)
c)4.7% Proeutectoid cementite (1.0773% C)
d)10.45% Eutectoid cementite (Hypereutectoid
composition) (1.388% C)
Heat Treatment
 Non-equilibrium Phases Transformations
 Increasein cooling rate – non-equilibrium
 Bainite – T from 250 – 550°C
 Fine dissemination of cementite in ferrite

 Good toughness, strength and hardness

 Martensite – Rapid cooling (quenching in water or

 C atoms don’t have time to diffuse out of FCC

structure, are trapped in BCT cell

 Due to high amount of distortion associated

with phase transformation, hardness and

strength of martensite is very high
 Temper treatment is often need to restore

ductility of martensite
 Tempering occurs below 650°C and allows C
to precipitate out – also known as
Heat Treatment
 Types of Treatments
 Annealing
 Steel is austenitised, cooled at equilbrium
 Large grains and coarse pearlite

 Good ductility

 Normarlising
 Air-quench
 Finer grain size and pearlite

 Harder component than annealed sample

 Hardening
 Rapid queching in brine, oil, water or even liquid
 Martensite forms

 Excessively high hardness

Heat Treatment
 Types of Treatments
 Stress Relieftreatment
 Cold worked, quenched, welded or machined
components experience stress fluctuations
due to internal stresses
 Heat component below eutectoid

temperature to relieve internal stress

 Spherodising
 Process at which componenet is heated to
allow the rediffusion of C atoms out of the
grains to form spheres)
 Good machinability and good ductility

 Spheres have the lowest surface to volume

energy therefore precipitates grow in

geometry to mimic this shape
Recap: Tips
 You will most likely HAVE to use the lever rule
 You may expect some application type questions
 If you have to design a heat treatment remember FIT
 Cementite is highly brittle therefore any application
that requires good toughness, the amount in the
matrix must be reduced – propose spherodising
 With hypoeutectoid steels, pearlite can be a problem
for applications that require high strength – CW
can resolve this to a degree
 If a rapid quench (water, brine, oil or liquid
nitrogen is proposed, you will propably end
up with martensite – tempering is
 Bainite can be produced by quenching in a molten Pb
or salt bath and will give excellent mechanical
properties but time constraints have to be taken
into account
 Chapter 14
Electrical Properties of Materials
What do I need to know?
 Relationship between resistivity and
 3 Groups of electrical conductivity
 Factors that influence resistivity and
 Energy gap model for metals and isolators
 Intrinsic semi-conductors
 Extrinsic semi-conductors
 Dielectric character

Electrical Properties of Materials
 Resistivity and Conductivity
 Inverselyproportional to each other
 Resistance of material is dependent on the type
of material, length and cross-sectional area of
 Ohm’s law can be used to determine Resistance
and the micro-law can be used to determine
conductivity or resistivity
 3 Types of Conductors
 Conductor (e.g. Metals with high conductivity)
 Semi-conductors (e.g. Si with moderate
 Isolators (e.g. Ceramics with poor conductivity)

Electrical Properties of Materials
 Factors that influence resisitivity
 Temperature
 Linear relationship between resistivity and
 Purity of metal
 Alloying elements increase resistivity as electrons
have less mobility in the crystal structure
 Crystal Defects
 An increase in the crystal defects will facilitate an
increase in the resistivity as they will form
barriers against the movement of electrons
 Resistivity can be reduced by heat treatments


Electrical Properties of Materials
 Energy gap model
 Metals
 Small amount of energy needed to fill energy gap
with metals
 Therefore most metals have good conductivity

 Isolators
 Energy gap is separated from a filled band and an
empty band
 Electrons need a lot more energy to cross energy

gap therefore conductivity is lower

Electrical Properties of Materials
 Intrinsic Semi-Conductors (A-B-C)
 Pure, semi-conductors (Si and Ge)
 Negative and positive electrons contribute to the

conductivity of semi-conductors
 With an increase in temperature , the

CONDUCTIVITY of the material increases for

semi-conductors since certain valence electrons
are excited and their mobility increases
 Extrinsic Semi-Conductors
 Differentiate between p- and n-type
 Positive (Group 3 and 4 elements) and negative
semi-conductors (Group 4 and 5 elements)
 By doping, impurities decrease the energy gap

and through that, conductivity increases

Electrical Properties of Materials
 Extrinsic Semi-Conductors
 n-Type
 Group 5 substitutes one of Group 4 atoms
 Majority of conductors are electrons – minority are
 p-Type
 Group 3 replaces one of Group 4 atoms
 Majority of conductors are vacancies – minority are
 Dielectric Character
 Ceramics, ionics and some polymers – mostly
isolators but in some cases also semi-conductors
 Capacitor chambers
 Pizo-electric ceramics
 Ceramics that can convert electrical pulses to
mechanical vibrations or vice versa
 This chapter consists of 90% theory
 The few electrical formulas – Ohm’s law etc have been
covered extensively at high school level but if you
have any questions please don’t hesitate to ask
 Do some exercises on extrinsic semi-conductors just to
familiarise yourself with the equations
 It’s literally plug-and-play equations with very
little complicated calculations
 Once again it’s important to UNDERSTAND the factors
that will influence conductivity and resistivity
 You can expect maybe two graphs on this chapter,
some monkey puzzle questions and maybe 1
calculation (Probably from the extrinsic semi-
conductors section)

 Chapter 20
Magnetic Properties of Materials
What do I need to know?
 Basic Principles (Theory)
 Magnetic field strength and magnetic density
 Relative permeabilities

 Types of magnetism
 Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic,
antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic
 Influenceof Temperature on Ferromagnetics
 Hysteresis
 Magnetisation and demagnetisation and hysteris
 Differentitate between hard and soft magnetics

Magnetic Properties of Materials
Types of Magnetism
 Types of magnetism
 Diamagnetic - μr < 1
 Paramagnetic – particles move toward external
magnetic field but loses their magnetism when
field is removed
 Ferromagnetic – Magnetisationcan be permanent

due to the half-filled orbital of elements. It is

essential that electrons in the 3d orbital are
 Antiferromagnetic – Elements have a magnetic

moment but the a/d ratio is does not range

between 1.4 and 2.7 – no magnetism
 Ferrimagnetism – Traces magnetic moments –

usually ionic bonds- spine of electrons are anti-

parrallel but not magnetic

Magnetic Properties of Materials
of Temperature on
 At the Curie temperature, the 3d-electrons’
orientations changes and the parallel spin of
the electrons decrease
 At this temperature the ferromagnetic nature of
the material is destroyed

Magnetic Properties of Materials
 Domains on atomic level can be altered via a
solenoid – causes parallel movement of 3d-
 Magnetisation occurs with ferromagnetic and
ferrimagnetic materials due
 Domains (which have the correct orientation) start
to grow at the expense of incorrect orientated
 Incorrect orientated domains can be rotated if the

applied field strength is strong enough

 Demagnetisation will occur if the material is
heated above its Curie temperature, by
applying an opposite directed field strength
or increasing the dislocation density of the
Magnetic Properties of Materials
So-called hysteresis loop
shows the life-cycle of a
ferromagnetic material
The larger the area of the
curve, the easier
magnetisation is possible
Magnetic Properties of Materials
Hard VS Soft magnetics

High Hc and Br values Easy to magnetise and
Large negative magnetic field Needs high Bs value and high
need to demagnetise pearmeability
Small magnetic field to Induced current due to the
magnetise magnetic field
 The theory of this chapter is the
most important since there are
very few types of calculations
that can be asked of you
 Types of magnets is quite
important also the mechanism
that allows ferromagnetism
 B-H curve is very easy to
understand – just follow your