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Silal and Nicrosilal



(MAX 1.4%C) %C:2.14 TO 6.67
2)Low Ductility
3)Low Strength than
Types of cast irons:
Classification of cast iron is based on
metallographic structure.
(i.e.)carbon content, the alloy elements,
the heat treatment after casting and cooling rate.

Alloy Cast iron:

It contains a specially added
elements to produce a measurable modification in
the physical and mechanical properties.
Alloying elements added to cast iron for special
Properties Such as resistance to corrosion,heat and
wear due to friction.
The most common alloying elements are chromium
Copper, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium.

Addition of chromium:
Small amounts of chromium increase
Strength, hardness, resistance to wear and tear but
decrease machinability.
This due to chromium increases
Combined carbon by forming complex iron
Chromium carbides which are more stable than iron
Carbide.For resistance to corrosion or for use at
at high temperature as much as 35%cr is used
in combination with other alloying elements.

Addition of copper:copper is a graphitizer

and in engineering applications the copper
Content is between 0.25-2.5%.copper breaks the
massive cementite and strengthen the matrix.

Addition of Molybdenum:
Molybdenum is added in 0.25-
1.25%. Tensile strength, transverse strength, heat
resistance and hardness of cast iron are improved
Molybdenum also retards the transformation of
austenite thus increasing hardenability.

Addition of vanadium:
Vanadium is powerful carbide
former, stabilizes cementite and reduces
graphitization.vanadium is added in 0.1-0.25%
increases tensile strength, transverse strength
and hardness.
Addition of Ni:
In adding appropriate percent
of nickel we obtain special cast iron called Ni

Ni Hard:
Ni- Hard belongs to family of cast irons
alloyed with nickel and chromium to give
high hardness and outstanding resistance to
There are two distinct groups of Ni hard
Ni Hard1 &Ni Hard 2:
Ni hard 1&2 are essentialy contains
4%Ni,2%Cr in white cast iron.Table here
shows composition of Ni hard 1&2.
Microstructure :
The microstructure of Ni hard 1&2
Consists of primary dendrites and carbide eutectic
(the eutectic is a mixture of M3C carbide and
The hardness of Ni hard is function of carbide
content and matrix structure.
Difference between Ni hard 1&2:
Ni hard 1 and 2 have difference
in Vol% in eutectic carbide.
Ni hard2's lower carbon content results in lower
hardness and abrasion resistance but a higher

Role of Ni in Ni hard:
The Ni is essential to obtain
a martensitic -bainite matrix without pearlite.
At lower Ni content ,pearlite forms resulting in
An excessive Ni content favours formation of
retained Austenite which will lower hardness.
Role of Chromium :
Chromium serves to
compensate the graphitizing effect of Ni.since
free graphite reduces abrasion resistance.
Ni hard 4:
Ni Hard 4 is a 9%Cr, 6%Ni, 2%Si
White iron to give a structure with rod like
eutectic carbides (CrFe)7C3 and matrix free
from pearlite and predominantly martensite.
Due to low carbide Vol and rod like
carbide shape Ni hard4 has high fracture resistance
than Ni hard 1&2.

Role of chromium:
The chromium content of 8-10% is
necessary for desired eutectic carbides (CrFe)7C3
Role of Ni Content :
Ni is required
for hardenability and to
assist chromium in
formation of eutectic
carbides.Minimum. of 5%
Ni is maintained to
avoid pearlite formation.
Ni hard 1&2 applications :
1) Machined rollers for clay and brick industries .
2)Grinding Mill liner
3)Slurry pump parts
4)Ni hard castings used
in glass crushing mill
Concrete pipes and
Ni hard 4 uses:
1)Ni hard 4 castings used for moving
liquids containing solid particles used in mining,
Cement,coal,sugar industries.
2)Rollers for clay and brick industries ,
Coal and cement grinding.