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Aims and Objectives
• Knowing alternatives- since the excessive usage of plastic
has caused major plastic pollution around the world,
people should look for it's alternatives.

• Existing alternatives- there are a lot of existing

alternatives but they haven't come into practice because
they are too expensive and also some are not as durable
as plastic. The crowd will not buy expensive alternatives.
Cheaper and durable alternatives should be made for a
large part of the mass to use it.
• Convincing the mass- if you want the plastic usage
and pollution to be in control or minimal, it is very
important to educate the mass about it, because in
the case of India, the literacy rate varies from State
to state, Kerala having the highest- 93.91% and
Bihar having the lowest- 63.82%.

• Know about the global plastic pollution- Many

countries in the world produce huge amount of
plastic waste and contribute to the global pollution.
Countries like China, Indonesia,
Philippines,vitenam and Sri Lanka are the largest
producer and consumer of plastic.
Area of Concern
• During primary and secondary research, it was 
observed and concluded that people are not willing to 
opt for alternatives of plastic because either it is more 
expensive and has high manufacturing cost or the 
alternatives are not as durable as plastic.
• So the main area of concern of our project is finding 
cheaper alternatives to plastic or reducing the 
manufacturing cost of existing alternatives.
• We are keen to work on existing alternatives to make 
it more durable so it can replace plastic in most of the 
Existing Recommendations
• Chicken Feathers

The United States found out that disposing of chicken

feathers is a problem, but with the help of innovation,
they can be a material useful to make a water-resistant
thermoplastic. Chicken feathers are consist of keratin, a
tough and durable protein like plastics. It can be found
in hair and wool. The keratin-based plastic is proven to
be more resistant to tearing than other plastics made
from soy, starch, and other agricultural sources. It is
cost-effective, renewable, and fully biodegradable.
• Liquid Wood
Liquid wood looks, feels and acts like plastics but
unlike petroleum-based plastic, this is biodegradable
and suitable for various product packaging. Some
researchers use this as substitute to make toys, golf
tees, and hi-fi speaker boxes.
• PCL Polyesters
Polycaprolactone is a synthetic aliphatic polyester
that’s not created from renewable resources but could
degrade after weeks of composting. The process is
easy, but it is seldom used because of its
manufacturing costs.
• PLA Polyesters
Polylactic acid (PLA) is an aliphatic polyester
and can be made from lactic acid. PLA can also
be created from wheat or sugarcane. It has the
ability to decompose within forty-seven days in
an industrial composting site, and it would not
release toxic fumes when burned. It is open to
new packaging applications for green plastic,
automotive parts, and coffee cups.
• PHA Polyesters
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters are
biodegradable plastics that resemble with
man-made polypropylene. They are less
flexible than petroleum-based plastics, and
useful in in plastic films, injection-molded
bottles, and packaging.
• EG Bags
Joining the ranks of nature's crusaders is a 25-
year-old native from Mangalore who has
designed an ingenious substitute for the
ubiquitous plastic bags - one that can be
deceptive at first glance. When submerged in
warm water ,it begins to dissipate - contrary
to plastic bags that do not react this way since
it contains chemical additives. These bags
degrade naturally when discarded and cause
no harm to animals if they consume it and are
completely non toxic to enviornment.
• Plastic From Seeweed
Indonesian start-up Evoware is working with bioplastics:
a line of fully biodegradable plastics made from seaweed.
Evoware teamed up with local seaweed farmers to come
up bioplastics. The company chose seaweed because it
dissolves in water and leaves behind zero waste, is 100
percent biodegradable and can act as a natural fertilizer
for plants, and can be grown with minimal resources.
Evoware has even come up with edible-grade
Bioplastics to replace the plastic packaging
being used for food wrappers. In addition to
being completely edible,this bioplastics has
been touted as highly nutritious and rich in
fiber, vitamins, and minerals. These
bioplastics are tasteless, odorless, and can last
for as long as two years if kept sealed in their
original packaging.
• Plastic From Milk
To create an all-around better packaging
solution, Tomasula and colleagues at the U.S.
Department of Agriculture are developing an
environmentally friendly film made of the
milk protein casein. These casein-based films
are up to 500 times better than plastics at
keeping oxygen away from food and, because
they are derived from milk, are
biodegradable, sustainable and edible.
Although the researchers’ first attempt using
pure casein resulted in a strong and effective
oxygen blocker, it was relatively hard to
handle and would dissolve in water too
quickly. They made some improvements by
incorporating citrus pectin into the blend to
make the packaging even stronger, as well as
more resistant to humidity and high
Ways of redressal 
1 - EnviGreen Bags
• Eg bags are made of Potato, tapioca, corn,
natural starch, vegetable oil, banana, and
flower oil.
• Despite all the organic materials used in
making Eg bags, GYLCEROL can be added in
making, as a plasticizer (produce or promote
plasticity and flexibility and to reduce
• Glycerol is produced by the fermentation of
sugar, or from vegetable and animal oils and
• It is a material that makes the polymer chain molecules
bend and slide past each other more easily, which adds to
the flexibility of the plastic.
• In expensive
• Effective
2 ­ Bio­plastic from ‘Seaweed’

• The term bioplastic represents a plastic

substance that is based on organic
biomass rather Than petroleum.
Seaweed production does not require any
agricultural land or fresh water, and all its
biomass can be used. The purpose of
Seaweed for food is to create a sustainable
source of healthy food Products, additives
and feed by means of cultivation in the
Dutch waters.
­ How to maximise seaweed 
• Multiple processing of seaweed to ensure all are 
optimally used at the highest possible economic 
• Making seaweed products more appealing to 
consumers by developing attractive product and 
accessible information.
• Reducing the use of antibiotics and applicants for 
the pharmaceutical industries. 
­  What does bio­plastic mean?
• It
basically means a substance was
derived from plastic-based material.
Starch and cellulose are two of the
most common renewable feedstocks
used to create bioplastics; these
typically come from corn and
­ What are the benefits of bio­plastic?
• The greatest advantages of bioplastic industry are a
smaller energy footprint and a less polluted ecosystem.
Bioplastics are gaining popularity because they don’t
contain bisphenol A, as this element has been used in
many food products which is very harmful for humans,
hence edible bio-plastic is much more beneficial in this
3. Plastic with milk
• Plastic was made by adding vinegar to the milk and then
separating the liquid and semi liquid materials and
giving the semi liquid material a shape and letting it
• Instead of this we can add a STARCH to it which will
increase it’s consistency.
• Starch becomes soluble in water when heated. The
granules swell and burst, the semi-crystalline structure is
lost and the smaller amylase molecules start leaching out
of the granule, forming a network that holds water and
increasing the mixture's viscosity.
• This will help the structure to be stiff and remain in the
same way.
• Also, all the materials are edible including starch and it
can be called an edible plastic with more research.
Presented by:
Ritika Shah
Sakshi J Shah
Punya Harikumar
Nancy Khilwani
Ayushi Monpora