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BUDIDAYA TANAMAN

OBAT
Indah Yulia Ningsih, S.Farm., M.Farm., Apt.
TOPIK KULIAH
BAHAN BAKU SEDIAAN FITOFARMASI :
• SIMPLISIA
– Pembuatan simplisia
– Kontrol kualitas simplisia
• EKSTRAK
– Pembuatan ekstrak
– Kontrol kualitas ekstrak
MATERI KULIAH
• Budidaya tanaman obat (GAP)
• Pengumpulan tanaman obat (GCP)
Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Essential steps for the QC of HM :


• The source and quality of raw materials
• Good agricultural practices (GAP)
• Manufacturing processes

(Bandaranayake, 2006)
BAHAN BAKU SIMPLISIA
NABATI
• Tumbuhan Liar
– tumbuh dengan sendirinya di hutan/tempat
lain, atau sengaja ditanam dengan tujuan lain,
misal: sbg tanaman hias, tanaman pagar,
tetapi bukan untuk simplisia
• Tanaman Budidaya
– sengaja ditanam untuk tujuan produksi
simplisia
– kebun, tumpang sari, TOGA
(Depkes , 1985)
Tumbuhan Liar
• Umur tumbuhan atau bagian tumbuhan
yang dipanen tidak tepat dan berbeda-beda
• Jenis (spesies) tumbuhan yang dipanen
seringkali kurang diperhatikan sehingga
simplisia yang diperoleh tidak sama
• Lingkungan tempat tumbuh yang berbeda,
sering mengakibatkan perbedaan kadar
kandungan senyawa aktif
Tanaman Budidaya
• Bahan baku dari tanaman budidaya 
variasi lebih kecil daripada bahan baku
dari tumbuhan liar
• Senyawa aktif pada tanaman budidaya
lebih mudah dimonitor  waktu panen
optimum
• Ketidakajegan kualitas karena kondisi
lingkungan yg bervariasi dapat
dikendalikan  disisihkan/disortir
WHO Guidelines on good
agricultural and collection practices
for medicinal plants

GAP GCP

GACP

(WHO, 2003)
Good agricultural practices
(GAP)
A. Identification/authentication of
cultivated medicinal plants
B. Seeds and other propagation
materials
C. Cultivation
D. Harvest
E. Personnel
A. Identification/authentication
of cultivated medicinal plants
• Selection of medicinal plants
• Botanical identity
• Specimens
Pemilihan tanaman obat
• Spesies/varietas untuk penanaman harus
sesuai farmakope atau dokumen lain yg
mengikat
Misal: FI, EFI, MMI, dll.
• Jika tidak tersedia data, dapat mengacu pada
farmakope atau dokumen negara lain
Misal: USP, BP, BHP, EP, dll.
Identitas botani
• Nama ilmiah tanaman obat harus dicatat
& diverifikasi (genus, species,
subspecies/variety, author dan family)
• Nama lokal, nama umum harus dicatat
• Informasi lain yg relevan juga perlu dicatat
(cultivar name, ecotype, chemotype atau
phenotype)
Spesimen
• Jika ada keraguan identitas botani 
voucher botanical specimen
didaftarkan ke herbarium nasional
• Jika perlu, pola gen (genetic pattern)
dibandingkan dgn spesies otentik
• Identitas botani dilampirkan dlm
registrasi
B. Benih & media pembibitan lainnya

• Benih & media: supplier  info tentang


identitas, mutu, performa & riwayat
perbenihan jika mungkin
• Pembibitan  bebas dari kontaminasi &
penyakit agar tumbuh sehat
• Benih  sertifikat “organic”
• Spesies dgn modifikasi genetik  peraturan
yg berlaku
• Hindari benih palsu, sub standar atau
tercampur dgn benih lain
C. Penanaman (cultivation)
• Pemilihan tempat penanaman
• Ekologi lingkungan & dampak sosial
• Iklim
• Tanah
• Pengairan & penyaluran air
• Pemeliharaan & proteksi tanaman
Pemilihan tempat penanaman
• Tanaman obat yg berasal dari spesies yg
sama  mutu beda secara signifikan
o Tanah
o Iklim
o Faktor lainnya
• Hindari kontaminasi  polusi tanah, air &
udara
Ekologi lingkungan & dampak sosial

• Penanaman  keseimbangan lingkungan


– Tumbuhan asing  lahan baru
– Monitor dampak lingkungan
• Hindari dampak negatif terhadap
lingkungan sosial
– Penanaman skala kecil > skala besar
Iklim
• Effect of elevated CO2 on productivity and quality of
medicinal plants
– Elevated CO2 levels (3,000 μl CO2/litre of air) increased fresh
weight and leaf and root numbers in cultures of lemon basil
(Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.),
peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.)
and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) shoots compared with cultures
grown on the same media under ambient air.
Iklim
• Effect of elevated ozone levels
– Plant physiological stress imposed by augmented O3 levels may
stimulate the induction of metabolic pathways (e.g., salicylic acid
and jasmonic acid pathways) involved in the production of
secondary compounds.
• Effect of Ultraviolet radiation
– These radiations can cause molecular and cellular damage; for
example, it can damage proteins, DNA and other biopolymers.
– Furthermore, this type of radiation can affect plant growth and
development and result in changes in vegetative or reproductive
biomass, height, leaf characteristics, and flowering time.
Tanah
• Tanah/lahan harus mengandung nutrien &
elemen lain yg cukup
• Pemupukan:
– Pupuk organik: humus, kompos, kandang
– Pupuk kimia: NPK, urea
– Kotoran manusia
Pengairan & penyaluran air
• Pengairan disesuaikan dgn kebutuhan
spesies tanaman obat
• Air  standar mutu lokal/nasional/
regional
• Irigasi  dampak kesehatan
Pemeliharaan & proteksi tanaman
• Pemangkasan, topping & shading berkala  kontrol
pertumbuhan & perkembangan tanaman
• Any agrochemicals used to promote the growth of or to
protect medicinal plants should be kept to a minimum,
and applied only when no alternative measures are
available.
• Pestisida, herbisida, insektisida  peraturan yg berlaku
(comply with maximum pesticide and herbicide residue
limits)  dokumentasi
• Only qualified staff using approved equipment should
carry out pesticide and herbicide applications.
D. Pemanenan
• Waktu terbaik pemanenan  titik berat pada kualitas &
kuantitas senyawa aktif dibanding total vegetatif/ hasil panen
keseluruhan
• Hindari : embun, hujan, lembab  If harvesting occurs in wet
conditions, the harvested material should be transported
immediately to an indoor drying facility to expedite drying so
as to prevent any possible deleterious effects due to
increased moisture levels which promote microbial
fermentation and mould
• Peralatan: kontaminasi (dari tanah dan material lain) &
kerusakan 
• Hindari kontaminasi pd pengemasan -> They should be
stored
in an uncontaminated, dry place or facility free from insects,
rodents, birds and other pests, and inaccessible to livestock
and domestic animals
E. Personalia
• Pengetahuan tentang tanaman obat yg ditanam
(include botanical identification, cultivation
characteristics and environmental requirements)
• Hygiene pribadi  training
• Kelengkapan: sarung tangan, helm, kaca mata,
pelindung muka -> to apply agrochemicals
• Pengetahuan tentang perlindungan lingkungan
dan konservasi spesies tanaman obat
Pengaruh Lingkungan terhadap Tumbuhan

Ketinggian

Curah hujan Suhu

Sifat fisika,
kimia &
Lama
penyinaran
biologi Nutrisi
tanaman
obat
1. Suhu
• Kondisi kering (curah hujan  atau irigasi
)  pe biosintesis minyak atsiri
– Lavandula spica, Cymbopogon citratus, dll.
• Papaver somniferum  budidaya pada
kondisi kering  kandungan alkaloid me
14%
2. Curah Hujan
Musim hujan  alkaloid 
• Alkaloid tropan pd Datura stramonium,
Hyoscyamus niger me pd musim hujan
• Alkaloid kinin pada Cinchona sp tidak terbentuk
pd musim hujan
• Curah hujan tinggi  kelembaban relatif  
jamur Pleospora  pe alkaloid secara
signifikan pada P. somniferum & P. bracteatum
3. Lamanya Penyinaran
• Mentha piperita yg
tumbuh di lokasi dgn
penyinaran sepanjang
hari  senyawa mayor:
menton, mentol,
mentofuran ; penyinaran
½ hari  mentofuran

PNAS 2008 105 (8) 2818-2823


4. Ketinggian Tanah
• Kina (Cinchona succirubra) umumnya
tumbuh di dataran tinggi. Pada dataran
rendah sama sekali tidak mengandung
alkaloid
• Timi & peppermint kandungan minyak
atsiri me pada dataran tinggi
• Datura metel  total alkaloid dataran
rendah < dataran tinggi
5. Nutrisi
• Logam Mn, Mo, Mg dan B
meningkatkan biogenesis minyak atsiri
pada Cymbopogon winterianus
• Prosentase ester tropan pada Datura
innoxia sangat sensitif terhadap stress
NaCl
Good collection practices (GCP)
A. Permission to collect
B. Technical planning
C. Selection of medicinal plants for collection
D. Collection
E. Personel
A. Permission to collect
• Bila diperlukan, mis. Utk tanaman liar,
tanaman utk tujuan ekspor-impor
B. Technical planning
• Identification of the collection sites
• Local and/or national collection permits
• Essential information on the target species (taxonomy
(include common or local names), distribution (incl plant
parts), morphology)
• Data about environmental conditions, including
topography, geology, soil, climate and vegetation at the
prospective collecting site(s)
• Transportation to carry personnel, equipment, and
collected medicinal plant materials
• Trained personels
C. Selection of medicinal plants
for collection
• The species or botanical variety selected
for collection should be the same as that
specified in the national pharmacopoeia
• Botanical identification or authentication
D. Collection
• Medicinal plants should not be collected in or near areas where
high levels of pesticides or other possible contaminants are used or
found, such as roadsides, drainage ditches, mine tailings, garbage
dumps and industrial facilities which may produce toxic emissions.
• The collection of medicinal plants in and around active pastures,
including riverbanks downstream from pastures, should be avoided
in order to avoid microbial contamination from animal waste.
• The collected raw medicinal plant materials should not come into
direct contact with the soil.
• If underground parts (such as the roots) are used, any adhering soil
should be removed from the plants as soon as they are collected.
• Cross-contamination should be avoided -> If more than one
medicinal plant part is to be collected, the different plant species or
plant materials should be gathered separately and transported in
separate containers.
E. Personnel
• Local experts responsible for the field
collection should have formal or informal
practical education and training in plant
sciences and have practical experience in
fieldwork.
• They should be responsible for training
any collectors who lack sufficient technical
knowledge to perform the various tasks
involved in the plant collection process.
Pengumpulan bahan
Bagian
baku
tanaman

Kadar
Lingkungan Umur
tumbuh senyawa tanaman
aktif

Waktu
panen
(Depkes, 1985)
Atropa belladona  hiosiamina
• Awal : akar
• Tahun I: batang yg masih hijau
• Tahun II: batang  (berlignin), daun 
• Berbunga: pucuk daun   
• Berbuah: 
• Buah makin tua:  
Pedoman pemanenan
(Depkes, 1985)

1. Biji yg telah tua


– Kedawung  mengeringnya buah
– Jarak  sebelum kering benar (sebelum buah
pecah alami dan biji terlempar jauh)
2. Buah yg telah masak
– Labu merah  perubahan kekerasan
– Asam  perubahan warna
– Belimbing wuluh, jeruk nipis  kadar air buah
– Pare, mentimun  perubahan bentuk buah
Pedoman pemanenan

3. Daun pucuk: perubahan vegetatif 


generatif
– Kumis kucing
4. Daun tua: daun membuka sempurna &
terletak di batang/cabang penerima sinar
matahari sempurna
– Sembung
5. Kulit batang  cukup umur (mis.
menjelang musim kemarau)
Pedoman pemanenan

6. Umbi lapis: besar umbi maksimum 


pertumbuhan bag di atas tanah
berhenti
– Bawang merah
7. Rimpang: mengeringnya bagian atas
tanaman  besar rimpang maks
– Jahe , kunyit , dll.
8. Kayu yg telah tua
– Kamfer
The origin of samplesa
Average Average
Sites of Altitude Climate Voucher
Samples temperature rainfalls
cultivation (m) type number
(°C) (mm)

21/H3.1.5/D
A Cibodas (Java) 1325.0 17.4-24.3 2500.00 B
T/2013

15/H3.1.5/D
B Gempol (Java) 314.0 24.0-35.0 139.18 E
T/2012

Surabaya 17/H3.1.5/D
C 8.0 23.6-33.8 165.30 D
(Java) T/2012

Surabaya 22/H3.1.5/D
D 8.0 23.6-33.8 165.30 D
(Java)b T/2013

Purwodadi 19/H3.1.5/D
E 323.0 24.0-32.0 2000.00 C
(Java) T/2012

18/H3.1.5/D
F Pacet (Java) 700.0 24.0 2343.00 C
T/2012

Makassar 20/H3.1.5/D
G 6.0 26.5-28.5 275.90 D
(Sulawesi) T/2013
a
Data were obtained from Provincial Irrigation Service, Surabaya (East Java)
(January 15, 2013)
b
The plants are originated from Papua and growing in Surabaya
Metabolite Profiling from different locations
(Ningsih et al., 2015)

PCA analysis of pair RT and m/z (Figure 1A) showed a


definite discrimination of samples A, E, F and G, whilst
samples of B, C and D were not well separated.
HCA analysis-
dendogram
Dendogram of all samples indicated
that samples were consisted of
two clusters, one consist of {A, (B,
C, D)}, and the other was cluster
(E, F, G). Location of B is relative
very close to C and D.
Perbedaan kadar metabolit2 antar lokasi

Relative intensities of the metabolites were presented in bucket statistic


plots (Figure 5); Metabolites (1), (2) and (5) were relatively found in high
level in samples E and F, whilst metabolites (3) and (4) were in samples
G. The highest intensities of metabolite (6) was found in sample F.
Soil Nutrient Content

Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences between concentrations of Ca,


P, Cu, K and Fe (p < 0.05) in soils at the site of cultivation. Figure 3 showed
significant positive correlation trends of the concentrations of Ca, P, and Cu in
soils versus metabolite profiles of samples A, C, D, B, G, E, F (correlation
coefficients were 0.771, 0.624 and 0.759, respectively; r table was 0.549 for p =
0.01). On the contrary, concentrations of Fe and K (data were not shown) in
soils did not yield any correlations with metabolite profiles of all samples (r =
-0.382, and 0.041 respectively). It seemed that concentrations of Ca, P and Cu
could affect the metabolite profile of the samples, whilst concentrations of Fe
and K in soils, altitude, average temperature, average rainfall, and climate type
(Table 1) might be not affected the profiles of the metabolites.
TERIMA KASIH