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Pengembangan pesan dan media

promosi kesehatan

Diambil dari berbagai sumber


Disampaikan oleh:
Bagoes Widjanarko
Gombong, 1 April 2013
Ringkasan topik
 Masalah apa yang ada dalam kaitan dengan kesehatan?
 Apakah masalah tersebut terkait dengan perilaku?
 Perilaku apa yang perlu diubah?
 Target perlu berperilaku seperti apa?
 Faktor penentu perilaku apa yang perlu ditampilkan dalam
pesan?
 Apa isi pesannya (formulasi)? (formulasi, ikon)
 Media apa yang sesuai? (target, biaya dll)
 Disain media
 Strategi penyampaiannya bagaimana?
Describing health problem
Epidemiologic inquiry
 Mortality
 Morbidity
 Disability
 Discomfort
Logical analysis
Menjelaskan dengan teori perilaku
 Masyarakat (calon pengantin) tidak
berpartisipasi dalam program imunisasi TT ibu
hamil
 Dipergunakan HBM untuk menjelaskan
CONCEPT DEFINITION APLICATION
PERCIVED One's opinion of chances of Define population(s) at risk,
SUSCEPTIBILITY getting a condition risk levels; personalize risk

PERCEIVED One's opinion of how serious a Specify consequences of


SEVERITY condition and its sequelae are the risk and the condition

PERCEIVED One's opinion of the efficacy of Define action to take; how,


BENEFIT the advised action where, when;

PERCEIVED One's opinion of the tangible Identify and reduce barriers


BARRIER and psychological costs of the through reassurance,
advised action incentives, assistance

CUES TO Strategies to activate Provide how-to information,


ACTION "readiness" promote awareness,
reminders.
SELF EFFICACY Confidence in one's ability to Provide training, guidance
take action in performing action
Memfokuskan pesan
 Dari diagram di atas ditentukan determinan apa
yang akan dipilih sebagai isi pesan
 Melalui kajian referensi, pendapat ahli atau riset
lapangan
Menentukan objective goal
 Pada dasarnya objective goal adalah
perubahan determinan perilaku atau perubahan
perilaku yang akan dicapai
 misal: pada akhir program, capeng di Desa X
bersedia datang untuk imunisasi TT
 Determinan spesifik: Perceived susceptibility,
perceived seriousness, perceived benefit
Mengembangkan matriks tujuan
perubahan
KEADAAN AWAL PERUBAHAN YANG AKAN
DICAPAI
CAPENG TIDAK SADAR BAHAYA CAPENG MENYADARI BAHAYA
TN TN
CAPENG TIDAK TAHU CAPENG TAHU MANFAAT
MANFAAT IMUNISASI TT IMUNISASI TT

CAPENG TIDAK TAHU JADWAL CAPENG TAHU JADWAL


IMUNISASI IMUNISASI TT

CAPENG TIDAK TAHU TEMPAT CAPENG TAHU TEMPAT


IMUNISASI PELAYANAN IMUNISASI TT
Pengembangan pesan
 Menggunakan cara berpikir sistematik (perlu
fakta, data empiris, jaminan)
 Menggunakan cara berpikir heuristik (ringan,
“bahagia”, “heppy”, kebersamaan, riang
gembira)
Behaviorist theory
 Conditioning (pavlov)
-comfort eating
-makanan sebagai hadiah perilaku baik memberi
impresi :makan enak, manis menimbulkan rasa
nyaman, kalau sedang sedih. BT, makan aja
-suasana kebersamaan yang nyaman (enaknya
sambil merokok)
Operant conditioning
 Perilaku dibentuk dari “reward and punishment”
dalam sepanjang perjalanan hidup
Social learning
 Belajar dari lingkungan sosial
 Melihat orang lain melakukan dan meng imitasi
(bintang film sebagai ikon iklan)
 Remaja mencoba merokok setelah melihat
“para bintang di iklan rokok terlihat hebat”
 Remaja putri melihat kecantikan para model
dan betapa model tersebut terkenal dan banyak
uang, lalu memaksakan diri untuk terlihat
ramping hingga mengalami Eating disorder
Telaah ekologi intervensi
 Pada dasarnya perubahan perilaku yang
diharapkan membutuhkan perubahan
lingkungan sosial dan aspek regulasi
 Telaah ekologi adalah rentang sasaran dari
program intervensi yang akan dilakukan dalam
rangka perubahan perilaku
CONCEPS DEFINITION
INTRA PERSONAL Individual characteristics that influence
FACTORS behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes,
beliefs, and personality traits

INTERPERSONAL Interpersonal processes, and primary groups


FACTORS including family, friends, peers, that provide
social identity, support, and role definition

INSTITUTIONAL Rules, regulations, policies, and informal


FACTORS structures, which may constrain or promote
recommended behaviors
COMMUNITY Social networks and norms, or standards,
FACTORS which exist as formal or informal among
individuals, groups, and organizations

PUBLIC POLICY Local, state, federal policies and laws that


regulate or support healthy actions and
practices for disease prevention, early
detection, control, and management
Dinamika perubahan
 Internal
 Pengaruh lingkungan
 Penguatan internal
 Intensi untuk berubah
 Mencoba berubah
 Mantap untuk berubah
CONCEPT DEFINITION APLICATION

RECIPROCAL Behavior changes result from Involve the individual and relevant
DETERMINISM interaction between person others
and environment .

BEHAVIORAL Knowledge and skills to Provide information and training


CAPABILITY influence behavior . about action

EXPECTATION Beliefs about likely results of Incorporate information about likely


action results of action in advice.

SELF EFFICACY Confidence in ability to take Use persuasion and


action encouragement; approach behavior
change in small steps.

OBSERVATIONAL Beliefs based on observing Point out others' experience,


LEARNING others physical changes; identify role
models

REINFORCEMENT Responses to a person's Provide incentives, rewards, praise


behavior that increase or
decrease
Media
 Sesuai isi pesan
 Sesuai dengan objective goal
 Sesuai karaketeristik sasaran
 Sesuai dengan cakupan yang diharapkan
 Sesuai dengan kemampuan petugas
 Sesuai dengan pendanaan
Jenis media
 Grafis
 Audibel
 Visual
 Audiovisual
 Model
Media berdasarkan cara
penyampaian
 Statis (poster, foto, pameran, lembar balik,
model)
 Pancar luas (radio, program TV, internet)
Poster
 Relatif murah
 Menarik
 Relatif mudah
 Mudah diganti
-Berpotensi salah persepsi pada target
Lembar balik
 Mampu memberi info ringkas dengan cara
praktis
 Media yang cocok untuk kebutuhan dalam
ruangan atau luar ruangan
 Bahan dan pembuatan murah
 Mudah dibawa kemana-mana
 Membantu mengingatkan pesan dasar bagi
fasilitator/pengguna media
Disain flipchart
 Ukuran standar 60- 90 cm , atau sesuaikan
dengan jumlah peserta
 Gunakan ilustasi foto/kartun yang sederhaan
dan dikenal khalayak
 Penulisan Judul yang menonjol , gunakan
huruf besar dan sederhana
 Pesan jelas dan ringkas , istilah
disederhanakan
 Gunakan warna mencolok dan tebal.
Program
 Consult with intended participants and
impleenters
 Create program scope, sequence, theme and
materials list
 Develop design document and protocols
 Review available materials
 Develop program materials
 Pretest program material
Adoption and Implementation Plan
 Identify adopters and users
 Specify adoption, implementation, and
sustainability performance objectives
 Specify determinants and create matrices
 Select methods and strategies
 Design interventions to affect program use
Diffusion innovation
Concept application

innovator . Track them down and become their “first followers”


support and publicity for their ideas.

Early Reward their egos e.g. with media coverage.


adopter

Early simplify application forms and instructions.


majority Provide strong customer service and support.

Late Focus on promoting social norms rather than just


majority product benefits

laggard Give them high levels of personal control over when,


where, how and whether they do the new behaviour.
CONCEPT DEFINITION APLICATION

RELATIVE The degree to which an innovation Point out unique


ADVANTAGE is seen as better than the idea, benefits: monetary value
practice, program, or product it convenience, time
replaces saving, prestige, etc.

COMPATIBILITY How consistent the innovation is Tailor innovation for the


with values, habits, experience, and intended audience's
needs of potential adopters . values, norms, or
situation
COMPLEXITY How difficult the innovation is to Create program/ to be
understand and/or use uncomplicated, easy to
use and understand

TRIALIBILITY Extent to which the innovation can Provide opportunities to


be experimented with before a try on a limited basis
commitment to adopt is required

OBSERVABILITY Extent to which the innovation Assure visibility of


provides tangible or visible results results: feedback or
publicity.
Evaluation Plan
 Describe the program
 Describe program outcome and effect questions
 Write questions based on matrix
 Write process questions
 Develop indicator and measures
 Specify evaluation design