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Moiré – French name for a fabric known as

watered silk.
The fabric shows patterns of light and dark
bands. These bands or fringes are due to
interference effect. It is called the Moiré
When two similar arrays of equally spaced
lines or dots are arranged in a overlapping
fashion, the moiré effect can be seen.
Pictures of Moiré effect
Applications of Moiré effect
Moiré effect has been used for the
determination of the following:
Determination of strain
Displacement measurement
Measurement of out-of-plane displacements
Measurement of slopes and moment
Inclination angle between moiré fringes and
the distance(spacing) between the fringes are
The geometry of the two interfering line
arrays are studied.
The relation between the geometry of fringes
and the inclination and spacing of fringes are
used for the determination displacement and
A series of parallel lines, a series of radial lines
emanating from a point, a series of concentric
circles or a pattern of dots are used to
produce moiré fringes.
In stress analysis, arrays consisting of straight
parallel lines are commonly used.
Such arrays are called as grids, gratings or
Moiré fringes are produced when two gratings
are laid over each other.
In moiré technique, two gratings are used.
1. Model or Specimen grating
2. Master or Reference grating
The model grating is formed by applying a
coating of photographic emulsion over the
The model and master gratings are matched
when the specimen is in the undeformed
 Density of grating – the number of lines per unit
 Pitch of the grating(p) – center-to-center distance
between master grating lines(reciprocal of
density of grating).
 p’ – center-to-center distance between the model
grating lines in the deformed state.
 Primary direction – direction perpendicular to the
lines of master grating.
 Secondary direction – direction parallel to the
lines of master grating.
Mechanism of formation of moiré
 A beam of light is transmitted through the model and
master gratings.
 If the model and master gratings are aligned, the lines
of model and master gratings coincide exactly.
 The light will be transmitted as a series of bands.
 The width of each band = half of the pitch of
the grating
 Due to diffraction and the resolution capabilities of the
eye, this series of bands appears as a uniform gray
 The intensity of gray field = half of the intensity of
incident light beam.
Formation of moiré fringes
 When the specimen is subjected to deformation,
the pitch of the specimen grating is changed. It is
denoted by p’.
 The transmission of light through the gratings will
appear as a series of bands with different widths.
 The average intensity of emerging light varies as a
staircase function of position.
 When an opaque bar of one grating is aligned
with the transparent interspace of the other
grating, the light transmitted is minimum.
 The dark band thus formed is known as moiré
Light transmission through model and
master gratings(undeformed state)
Light transmission through model and master
gratings(deformed state)
No of grating lines
per mm: 40 (1000
lines per inch)

Pitch p = 1/40
= 0.025 mm
Length = 25 mm

No of fringes formed
in the gauge length,
n = 32

Change in length, ∆l
= 32 x 0.025
= 0.8 mm

Strain = ∆l/ (lg – np)

= 0.033