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Syed Mushhad Gilani
 Protocols
 The OSI model

 Functions of the layers

 To communicate, entities must agree on
 Protocol is a set of rules that govern

 The layered functionality of the

different protocols in the OSI Mode is

called a Protocol Stack
 standards that allow computers to
connect to one another and enable
computers and peripheral devices to
exchange information with as little
error as possible
 The first Ethernet standard was

published in 1980.
Network Protocols
• A communication protocol is a set of rules
that specify the format and meaning of
messages exchanged between computers
across a network.
• A set of related protocols that are designed
for compatibility are called protocol suite.
Human and Computer Protocols

Human Protocol Computer Protocol

Web client
Hi open
OK Web server
Got the
time? send me data
Protocols and Standards

•Industry standard •By one company or

•Open standard Organization
•Free of Charge •Close Standard
•Changes are Hard
 What is it?
 Building complex systems is hard!
• Approach: “Divide and conquer”.
• Split job into smaller jobs, or layers.
 Analogy to other fields.
• Building a house: digging, foundation, framing, etc.
• Car assembly line…
 Basic idea: each step dependent on the previous step
but does not need to be aware of how the previous step
was done.
Analogy: Air Travel
 The problem: air travel.
 Decomposed into series of steps:

Arrival at airport Departure from airport

Check-in Baggage claim

Boarding Deplane

Takeoff Landing

More on the air travel analogy…

Arrival Departure
Departing airport

Arriving airport
Check-in Baggage claim

Boarding Deplane

Takeoff Landing

intermediate air traffic sites

Airplane routing Airplane routing

Layered Protocol Design
• Layering model is a solution to the problem of
complexity in network protocols
• The model divides the network protocols into
layers, each of which solves part of the
network communication problem
– Each layer has its own protocol!
• Each layer implements a service to the layer
– Relying on services provided by the layers
 Layers are the different components that
need to be designed/implemented when
designing/implementing networks.
 Each layer responsible for a set of
 Top layer relies on services provided by
bottom layer.
 Layer makes it service available to higher
layer through an interface.
The OSI Model
 OSI stands for Open Systems
 It is a model that covers all aspects

of network communication
 Purpose is to open communication

between different systems without

requiring changes to the underlying
hardware and software
The OSI Model (cont.)
 It is a layered framework for the design of network systems
 Please Do Not Touch Steve’s Pet Alligator
 All People Seem To Need Data Processing
 Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away
The OSI Model (cont.)
 Each layer has its
own set of well-
defined functions

 Layers
communicate and
interact with the
layers immediately
above and below
An Exchange Using the OSI Model
The OSI Model (cont.)

 Each layer in the

sending machine
adds its information
in the form of
header and trailer.
 Each layer in the
receiving machine
gets information
related to it and
passes the rest to
upper layers.
Data Name at Different OSI model layers

 Application  Message
 Presentation  Packets
 Session  Packets
 Transport  Datagram and segment
 Network  Datagram
 Data Link  Frames
 Physical  Bits
Functions of the layers
 1:Physical Layer
• Coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit
stream over a physical medium.
• Deals with the mechanical and electrical specs of the
• Defines the procedures that physical devices had to
perform for trans. to occur
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Physical layer concerns with the following;
• Physical characteristics of interfaces and media
• Representation of bits
• Data rate (the transmission rate)
• Synchronization of bits
• Line configuration
• Physical topology
• Transmission mode
Functions of the layers (cont.)
Data Link Layer
 This layer breaks the input data into frames, transmits the frames
sequentially, and processes the acknowledged frames sent back by
the receiver. It adds a header and trailer to the frames it creates.

 It makes it to appear error free to upper layer

 Data Link Layer is Sub divided

 MAC (Media Access Control)
 LLC (Logical Link Control)
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Data link layer responsibilities are;
• Framing
• Physical addressing
• Flow control
• Error control

It Adds a header and trailer to the frames its

 It is responsible for physical addressing and access to the
network media, only one device at a time may transmit on
any type of media..
 Addressing
 Contention
 Deterministic

 Addressing
The Data Link layer is responsible for the
physical addresses of devices on the network. Every device
on a network has a hard-coded address attached to it.
 Example The address for Ethernet card would be

 Contention Any device can transmit whenever
it needs to. It allows equal access to the network
media, but at the expense of possible collisions.
Collisions occur when two devices try to transmit
at the same time and disrupt each other’s
signaling. Devices listen for other signals on the
media before transmitting. Collisions are not
totally eliminated, but they are kept down to
manageable form. It is called CSMA (Carrier
Sense Multiple Access.
 It has two types
 CSMA/CD A stands for Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection.
 CSMA/CA A stands for Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Avoidance
 Unlike a contention-based network,
where devices are free to transmit
whenever they want, a deterministic
 The two types of deterministic

networks are token passing and

 The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of
the Data Link layer establishes and
maintains data link connections between
network devices. It is responsible for any
flow control and error correction found in
this layer
 The following are connection services the
LLC sublayer supplies
 Unacknowledged connectionless service
 Connection-oriented service
Functions of the layers (cont.)
3:Network Layer
• The third layer of the OSI model is the Network
layer. This layer is responsible for routing
information from one network device to another.
The Network layer decides what path data will
take if the destination device is located on
another network.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Network layer responsibilities are;

• Routing
 One of the functions of the network layer is to route
the packets to their final destination in an
internetwork environment.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 SWITCHING: Datagram switching describes how
data is forwarded across an inter network. There
are three main methods
 Circuit Switching: In circuit switching, a
dedicated connection is made between the two
communicating devices. Two advantages of this
method are no congestion (because the link is
dedicated) and almost no channel-access delay.
The disadvantages are inefficient use of the media
and a possible long wait to establish a connection.
Network Layer
 Message Switching: With message switching the
data is sent from device to device in whole across
the network. This is also known as store and
forward. Devices must store all the information as
it is sent in whole. The media is used more
efficiently with this method, and congestion can be
 Packet Switching: A combination of circuit
switching and message switching. With packet
switching, data is broken into small pieces and
routed from device to device. Devices that forward
the data only need to keep the information in
memory instead of in physical storage, because
data was split
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 4:Transport Layer
• Responsible for the source to destination
delivery of the entire message.
• Ensures that whole message arrives in order.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Transport layer responsibilities are;
• Service-point addressing
 Not only from computer-to-computer connection, but
also from process to process, so it gets the entire
message to correct process(running program) on
that computers
• Segmentation and reassembly
 Divided into transmittable segments with a unique
sequence number
• Connection control
 Can be connectionless or connection oriented
• Flow control
• Error control
Transport Layer
 Provide acknowledgment of successful
 Flow control
• Partition data into packets and assign each
one a sequence number
• Provide service to assemble the received
packets back into their original order
• Error detection and correction
 Lowest layer to which application
programs are typically written
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 5:Session Layer
• Is the network dialog controller which
establishes, maintains and synchronizes the
interaction between communicating systems.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Session layer responsibilities are;
• Manage who can transmit data at a certain
time and for how long
• Synchronization
 Adds checkpoints into a stream of data.
Session Layer
 Enable data exchange between
application to application
• Establishment
• Synchronization
• Re-establishment
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 6:Presentation Layer
• Concerned with the syntax of the information
exchanged between two systems.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Presentation layer responsibilities are;
• Translation
 Changes information into a stream of bits which is a
common format for different systems.
• Encryption
 The sender transforms the original information to
another form and receiver transforms the message to
its original form for privacy reasons.
• Compression
 Data compression reduces the number of bits to be
retransmitted, it is important at the transmission of
multimedia data.
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 7:Application Layer
• Enables the user whether human or software
to access the network and provides user
Functions of the layers (cont.)
 Application layer responsibilities are;
• Network Virtual Terminal
 Is a software version of the physical terminal and
allows a user to log on to a remote host.
• File transfer,access and management(FTAM)
 Allows a user to access files in a remote computer
and to manage or control them.
• Mail services
 Provides the basis for email forwarding and storage.
Application Layer
 Dictate the semantics of how requests for
services are made, such as requesting a file or
checking for email.
 The container for all applications and protocols
• Telnet, HTTP, POP, SMTP, Finger, FTP, etc.
 Virtually all distributed systems are applications
 In Java, almost all network software written will
be for the application.
OSI Layers
 A typical message as it appears on the network.

Functions of the layers (cont.)
Layer Function Protocols Network

Application DNS; FTP; SMTP; Gateway

User Interface used for applications specifically written to run over the network TELNET; etc
allows access to network services that support applications;
directly represents the services that directly support user applications
handles network access, flow control and error recovery
Example apps are file transfer-mail,

Presentation   Gateway
Translation Translates from application to network format and vice-versa Redirector
all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform
format that the rest of the OSI model can understand
responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion,data encryption /
decryption, expanding graphics commands, data compression
sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from
multiple protocol stacks
not always implemented in a network protocol

Session NetBIOS Gateway

"syncs and establishes, maintains and ends sessions across the network Mail Slots
sessions" responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated
parties can participate in the session
provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data
stream => if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need be
manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long
Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session
would connect and re-connect if there was an interruption; recognize names in
sessions and register names in history
Transport TCP, NetBIOS / Gateway
packets; flow control additional connection below the session layer NetBEUI Advanced
& error-handling manages the flow control of data between parties across the network ATP Cable Tester
divides streams of data into chunks or packets; the transport layer of the Brouter
receiving computer reassembles the message from packets
"train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units
provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on
losses or duplications
provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests
retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free
provides flow control and error-handling

Network IP; ARP; RARP, ICMP; Brouter

addressing; routing translates logical network address and names to their physical address RIP; OSFP; Router
(e.g. computername ==> MAC address) IGMP; Frame Relay
responsible for IPX Device
addressing NWLink ATM Switch
determining routes for sending
NetBEUI Advanced
managing network problems such as packet switching, data
OSI Cable Tester
congestion and routing
if router can’t send data frame as large as the source computer sends, the DDP
network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. At the DECnet
receiving end, the network layer reassembles the data
think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car
Data Link Logical Link Control Bridge
data frames to bits turns packets into raw bits 100101 and at the receiving end turns bits into •error correction and flow control Switch
packets. •manages link control and defines ISDN Router
handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers SAPs Intelligent
802.1 OSI Model
the receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data Hub
802.2 Logical Link Control
frames for delivery to the Network layer NIC
responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Advanced
Physical Layer Cable Tester
this layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the
network. It consists of the wiring, the devices use to connect the NIC to Media Access
the wiring, the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability Control
to detect signaling errors on the network media •communicates with the adapter
•controls the type of media being
802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet)
802.4 Token Bus (ARCnet)
802.5 Token Ring
802.12 Demand Priority

Physical IEEE 802 Repeater

hardware; raw bit transmits raw bit stream over physical cable IEEE 802.2 Multiplexer
stream defines cables, cards, and physical aspects ISO 2110 Hubs
defines NIC attachments to hardware, how cable is attached to NIC ISDN Passive
defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable Active