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NEURO SCIENCE

LEMDIKANAS, 2007

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


BRAIN RESEARCH

“…Brain research is fast


moving science and new
discoveries are overturning
the old ones everyday.”

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BRAIN RESEARCH

“Oversimplified and
incomplete, but helps to
understand the
human brain.”

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THE FASCINATING ORGAN

“…The brain is without doubt


our most fascinating organ. We
have to help our children grow
with the best brain possible.”

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ORGAN YANG MENGAGUMKAN

• Tuhan menciptakan otak yang begitu


hebat - dalam tempo enam tahun
pertama, ia mampu menampung
informasi dengan kecepatan yang
mengagumkan, tanpa usaha
sedikitpun. (teach your baby to read).

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


BRAIN THEORIES
• Brain is chemical
• Brain consists of more than
a 100,000 miles of wire
called dendrites and axon
• Cells that form subsystems
merge to be a system
• Brain should be viewed as a
whole human processor
which works simultaneously
not sequentially.
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ESENSI TENTANG OTAK

• “The very organ that made those earlier


revolutions possible.” (Otak merupakan salah
satu organ yang memungkinkan berlangsungnya
revolusi penting dalam ilmu pengetahuan)

• “Brain is the most complexly organized


structure in the universe.”(Otak merupakan
struktur yang terorganisasi secara kompleks dalam
semesta)

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THE BRAIN
• “The brain is made of one hundred
billion nerve cells called neuron.” (Otak
terbuat dari ratusan miliar sel yang disebut neuron)

• “Neuron is the basic structural and


functional units of the nervous
system.”(Neuron merupakan struktur dasar dan
unit fungsional dari sistem syaraf)

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NEURON

• “Setiap neuron melakukan ribuan


kontak dengan neuron-neuron lain.
Kontak ini disebut dengan istilah
synapses. Melalui kontak ini terjadi
pertukaran informasi.”

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PERMUTASI DAN KOMBINASI
NEURON

• Jumlah permutasi dan kombinasi


kontak sel dalam aktivitas di otak
melebihi partikel-partikel dasar yang
terdapat di alam semesta.

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PARTS OF THE BRAIN

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OUR BBRAIN

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OTAK & PENGALAMAN MANUSIA

•Setiap bagian dari otak mempunyai


peran yang spesifik

•Peran bagian otak berpengaruh


terhadap hal-hal yang dialami oleh
manusia.

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OTAK KANAN – OTAK KIRI
Cara berpikir otak kiri Cara berpikir otak kanan
Logis, sekuensial, linear, Acak, tidak teratur, intuitif,
teratur holistik

Untuk tugas: ekspresi Untuk mengetahui:


verbal, menulis, membaca, perasaan, emosi,
asosiasi auditorial, kesadaran, pengenalan
menempatkan detail dan bentuk dan pola,
fakta, fonetik, & simbolis musik,seni, kreativitas,
visualisasi

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BRAIN HEMISPHERE
• Riset menunjukkan bahwa belahan
otak kanan merupakan bagian
kreatif manusia yang memproduksi
gagasan dan imaji.

• Sementara belahan otak bagian kiri


merupakan bagian yang bersifat
logis untuk menghasilkan pemikiran
yang kritis dan evaluatif.
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• Meningkatkan kekuatan otak,
keberhasilan dan kehormatan diri.

• Anthony Robbins, ahli


penampilan,penulis, dan penceramah.
Membuktikan NLP (neurolinguistik) –
mengajak murid-muridnya untuk
berjalan di atas bara api.
• Stu Mittlemen berlari 1000 mil, hanya 11
hari.
• Dari Bobbi Deporter & Mike Hernacki, 2001: 41-43

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PARTS OF THE BRAIN
The Brain comprises the following
major parts (Sousa, 2001) :
•The brain stem
•The limbic system
•The cerebrum, or cerebral cortex
•The cerebellum

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THE BRAIN STEM

• The brain stem (also known as


''reptilian brain''), controls bodily
function that keep us alive, such as
heart rate, respiration, digestion, and
attention to signals in the
environment that may constitute
threats.

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


THE BRAIN STEM

• The brain stem (also known as


''reptilian brain''), controls bodily
function that keep us alive, such as
heart rate, respiration, digestion, and
attention to signals in the
environment that may constitute
threats.

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


THE BRAIN STEM

• The brain stem (also known as


''reptilian brain''), controls bodily
function that keep us alive, such as
heart rate, respiration, digestion, and
attention to signals in the
environment that may constitute
threats.

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


THE LYMBIC SYSTEM

• The limbic system (also known as the


''old mammalian brain'') generates
emotions and consolidates
experiences into memories, thus
providing continual interplay
between cognitive and emotional
processes

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THE CEREBRUM
• The cerebrum, or cerebral cortex, is
divided into two hemispheres ( the
so-called right and left brains, which
are responsible for speech, thinking,
and almost every other of act we call
cognitive.

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THE CEREBELLUM

• The cerebellum coordinates


movements and, likely, their rotation
sensations, cognitions, and emotions.

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THE TRIUNE THEORY
(Three in One)

The Neocotext

THE TRIUNE
BRAIN
The Reptilian The
Brain Limbic System

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NEOCORTEX

• Comprises about 80-85 % of our brain


mass
• Essential for higher function activities
• It’s what makes human unique
• Language
• Abstract though
• Problem solving
• Forward planning
• Fin e movement
• Creativity

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THE LYMBIC SYSTEM

• Center for human emotion


• Socio emotional brain
• Has essential equipment for long
term memory

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THE REPTILIAN BRAIN

•The instinctual
• Repetitive
• Animal survival
function

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CRITICS OF TRADITIONAL
LEARNING

 Rote learning
 Repeat-after-me
 The teacher is power center
 The learner as passive obedience
 Established job by the hierarchy
 A system driven by survival (fear of failure)
 Little concern with feeling and social bonding
 Little effort with to teach learner how to create,
problem solve, and think on their own

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ACCELERATE LEARNING

“Learning accelerate and


deepens when the whole brain
get involves.”

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A SENSE OF JOY

• “There is nothing
that accelerates
learning more than
a sense of joy.”
• “Negative feeling
slow learning or
stop it altogether.”

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


A SENSE OF JOY
• Learning accelerates and deepens when
the whole brain get involved.
• Manakala perasaan seseorang sedang
dalam keadaan positip, maka dia dalam
keadaan relaks. Dia akan menggunakan
neocortex - otak untuk belajar.
Sebaliknya, manakala seseorang berada
dalam situasi negatif, individu akan
menggunakan otak reptil - untuk
''survive'', maka proses belajar akan
melambat dan bahkan berhenti.

10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007


MIND = BODY, BODY = MIND

• Researchers discovered sometime ago that


functions like thinking and bodily
movement are intimately connected in the
brain.
• The body is the mind and the mind is
body.
• Otak dan tubuh tidak dapat dipisahkan
• Tubuh yang aktif akan membantu
bekerjanya fungsi otak.

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INTEGRATED THEORY

• The body and the mind are not two


separate entities, but one totally
integrated whole. n a very real sense
the body is the mind and the mind is
body. The nervous system and
circulatory system tie them together
as one.

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KONKLUSI

•Seluruh kehidupan adalah proses belajar dan


belajar adalah kehidupan

•Orang yang belajar secara kontinyu akan


terhindar dari penyakit Alzheimer

•Jika otak ditantang untuk mempelajari sesuatu


yang baru, maka dendrit dan jaringan syaraf
akan tumbuh.

(Cynthia A. Short, Brain Exercise for Senior Citizens: Dendrites are


Forever)

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SUMBER
• Scott Witt, (1983) How to be Twice as Smart : Boosting
Your Brain Power and Unleashing the Miracle of Your
Mind. New York : Parker Publishing, co. Inc

• Joan Dalton (1990) Adventures in Thinking Creative


Thinking & Cooperative Talk in Small Group. Australia
: Thomas Nelson

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10/7/2018 JOKO MURSITHO, 2007