Anda di halaman 1dari 31


 Thomas Roe “It may stand but never rise

 Disorder was due to the weakening and
fragementation of the authority of the Sultan
 Military – weaken
 Corruption
 The rise of Habsburg & Shah Abbas (Safavid)
 Financial crisis
1. Mehmet Ali & his imperial dreams
 Battle of Pyramid (May 8, 1798) ( In the
name of Allah, the merciful, the
compassionate, there is no God but Allah,
tell your nation that French are also
faithful Muslims…)
 NB (al-Sultan al-Kabir)

 Treaty of Defensive Alliance (TDA) 1805
 Reforms in Egypt; created vast system of
monopoly; attempt to produce an industrial
revolution in Egypt ; westernized the edu,…
 Tried to win Sultan heart – led military
campaign against Wahabi 1811 & 1818
 Visit Sultan annually to offer “gift”
 Suez saga

 DU was in a state of rapid decay even though sultan
rule from Persian Gulf to Bosnia, north coast to Black
Sea to Yemen, claim suzerainty obver Algiers. Tunis
and Tripoli, Balkan states (Moldavia & Wallachia-
pricipalities), Morea & Montenegro =
 Baghdad & Damascus – heredetiry
 Egypt – dominated by Mamluk beys and rising of
wahhabis among the beduins – they forbade mystical
 Smyrna to Palestine ruled by derebeyis (local
chieftains) who considered Porte as enemies & attack
when they have opportunity
 Sultan – degenerate @ incompetent- confined to
seraglio – grew up in the company of eunuchs
of harem

 Sultan Ahmed III – Lale Devri – Age of Tulips (
Renovate feudal system/ financial/lifestyle)
 Tanzimat – introduced in the early 19th C , aim
to save DU by modernizing its decaying
institutions – a try to change DU into a secular
 Why? They believe that Sultan is the only force
they need to reach the peak again

1. Sultan; broke the powers of provincial notables
(ayan) - rebellions
2. Exterminated Janissary for their inefficientcy
3. Deprived Ulema to function in the

 Concern on Christian subjects
 Hatti Sherif guaranteed certain fundamental
rights to all Ottoman subject without
distinction of religion
 Hatti Humayun – went further by
guaranteeing freedom, liberation, justice, new
taxation system, public employment and
military service

 Muslims – religious axiom- superiority of Islam
and tradition of Muslim domination
 Leaders were unable to carry out the mission
due to fierce opposition @passive resistance of
large majority of Muslim
 Christians commitment were minimum as they
prefer to cooperated with their co-religionists
 Bloody revolt by Balkanists fanned anti-
Christians among the Muslims
 Non-Muslim communities – reluctant to
collaborate with the government policy ( eager
for improvement for their status but
unprepared for the most part to assume the
obligation incumbent on fully qualified citizens
–i.e. to serve in the army)

 The establishment of western education
institution – vocational/schoolss/ training
colleges/schools for civil servants/ Darul
 Reading materials – newspapers , modern
literature – translations/plays/ novels

 Ministry and cabinet was formed in the
European model
 Separation of executive, legislative and judicial

 1868 – Supreme Council formed

 Sultan remained at the top but new set of laws

introduced - criminal/commercial/land/other
laws of western type
*(family inheritance remained under Islamic law)

 Tanzimat leaders failed to understand DU’s
economic affairs (primitive methods of cultivation/
shortage of manpower/heavy taxation/lack of
 Tanzimat leaders tried to abolish those and form a
new system – secularised waqf institution and
changed land status into state land
 Influx of cheap and modern European goods –
killed traditional crafts
 Customs and foreign goods much lower duties than
domestic products
 The development in trading world
 East-West trade Persia via Rs

 The opening Suez Canal ;

Diverted trading from Tr

 Failed to prevent dismemberment of DU
 Not supported by public opinion
 The introduction of secular laws and institution
create dualism in the DU – resulted to tension
between westernized & traditional Muslim

 The decay of the Ottoman Turks in the eastern
Mediterranean that intacable and interwoven
tangle of conflicting interests, rival peoples and
antagonistic faiths.
 The ottoman gradual disintegration – racked
by rebellions, corruption, financial weakness
and military defeats
 The situation went from bad to worse by the
interference of Great Powers by fuelling 7
distorting conflicts in the region
 What would happen to the Balkan if & when
the Ottoman dissappeared?
 British feared Russia will expand its territory
bc Russo-Turkish war had increased Russia
control over Black Sea and Rs managed to
established route to the Caspian Sea and
expanded into central Asia. By 1879s Russia
has already possesed the third most powerful
navy in the world after Britain & France
 Rs might block Britain Mediterranean trade &
even threaten British waters.
 EQ had become a specifically Anglo-Russian
 British interests in the Balkan derived frpm
wider economic pursuits in India via Eastern
 Brtish needed secure the shipping routes
which passed through areas like Suez that were
nominally Turkish
 Du remained as the “balance of Power”
 Strenghten Rs control over Black Sea cause Br
 Promoted Pan Slavist movement
1. The moribund nature
of the Ottoman
2. The spread of
nationalism in the
3. The attempts to revive
Turkey by the “new
Ottomans and Young
4. German attempts to
generate a sphere of
influence in the ME
5. The impact of Balkan
 Maltese & Tuscan privateers operated in the
 DU succeded in Canea but surrendered to
Venetians who blocked the Straits, Smyrna,
Chesme & ports of Morea
 DU beleaguered – asked English for help
(English powerless against Venetians) led DU to
hired English & Dutch to combat Venetians
*then led to talk of defensive alliance between DU
and England against French & Spaniards
 DU witnessed few times his alliences helped
the enemies ( French, Sp, Tuscan & Maltese –
helped venetians)

 DU political status and continued viability bc
of strategic Balkan, Near East & Eastern
 a definition to the problem of filling up the
vacuum created by the gradual disappearance
of Ottoman from Europe

1. The decline of once mighty DU
2. The ultimate failure of modernizing reform to
rejuvenate “the sick man of Europe”
3. The rise of DU subjects
4. The rivalries of Great powers for commercial,
diplomatic & strategic leverage in the Ottoman
-near East

 Various territorial arenas of Great Powers
 Russia & Hungary clashed in Balkans
 British & France in North Africa, Egypt & Levant
 British sought to maintain unchallenged mastery
over mediterrnean
 British and Germany compete in the DU’s
 Russia and British (& all Great Poers) struggled to
influence in Constantinople & strategic waterways
of the Bosphorus and the Straits of Dardanelles
 Russia and British rivalry extended to Muslim
khanates of Central Asia
 NB led Balkans to question the posiyion DU as
the ruler and labelled Ottoman as incubus
 Greeks’ national awareness grew and began to
promote their national aspirations
 Caused by ; rising level of literacy; increasing
interaction with European; commercial contact
with Russian & western powers; sklilllful
merchant marines; military experience;
growing self copncioussness

 1814 – Philiki Etairia – friendly society under
Alexander Ypsilantis but they were defeated by the DU
and had to feld to Austria
 Aims to – establish a large greek dominated empire
along the lines of Byzantine Empire with
Constantinople as the capital
 Action began on Feb 1821 - held revolt against
Ottoman (once they believe Russia would help) Tsars
refused to help nationalists
 Failed – Russia , Britain n France helped the DU but
Greek national aspiration continued.

 Greek nationalism spread wider to Morea and they
began to captured several naval centres to establish
their own fleet
 1822- a national assembly convened at Epidauros –
adopted a constitution (Constitution of Epidaurus)
 Formed a national Assembly and elected Alexander
Mavrokordatos as the first president of the Hellenic
 DU refused to recognized Hellenic Rep and insisted
that the Greeks was always be Ottoman subject

 The success of the Greeks did not pas
unnoticed among the other tributary states of
the DU
 Toynbee; “the first explosion of Greek
nationalism kindled the first spark of Turkishj