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Gases

Gases
Characteristics of Gases

• Unlike liquids and solids, they


 Expand to fill their containers.
 Are highly compressible.
 Have extremely low densities.

Gases
Pressure

• Pressure is the
amount of force
applied to an area.
F
P=
A
• Atmospheric
pressure is the
weight of air per
unit of area.
Gases
Units of Pressure

• mm Hg or torr
These units are literally
the difference in the
heights measured in mm
(h) of two connected
columns of mercury.

• Atmosphere
1.00 atm = 760 torr
Gases
Standard Pressure

• Normal atmospheric pressure at sea


level.

• It is equal to
1.00 atm
760 torr (760 mm Hg)
101.325 kPa
Gases
Ekivalensi satuan tekanan

6
Tekanan yang diberikan oleh gas
tergantung pada

• Jumlah molekul gas ini.


Suhu gas.
Volume di mana gas dibatasi.

7
Barometer raksa

Sebuah tabung
merkuri terbalik
dan ditempatkan
di sepiring
merkuri.

barometer ini
digunakan untuk
mengukur tekanan
atmosfir.
8
12.3
Pengaruh Jumlah Molekul dan Suhu
pada Tekanan gas

9
Tekanan gas dihasilkan oleh adanya molekul gas
bertumbukan dengan dinding wadah.

10
Tekanan yang diberikan oleh gas
V = 22.4 L
berbanding lurus dengan jumlah
T = OoC
molekul ini.

11
12.4
Pengaruh Suhu pada Tekanan suatu gas

• Tekanan gas pada volume tetap


meningkat dengan meningkatnya suhu.
• Ketika tekanan gas meningkat, energi
kinetiknya juga meningkat .
• Energi kinetik gas meningkat akibat
dari molekul gas bertumbukan lebih
sering dan lebih kuat dengan dinding
wadah. 12
Peningkatan
Pada volume tekanan gas
tetap, Tekanan disebabkan oleh
gas meningkat tabrakan lebih
sering dan lebih
dengan kuat dari molekul
meningkatnya gas dengan dinding
suhu wadah pada suhu
yang lebih tinggi.

Lower T Higher T
Lower P Higher P

13
12.5
Hukum Boyle

14
Pada suhu konstan (T), volume (V) dari
suatu gas berbanding terbalik dengan
Tekanan (P).

1
V 
P
P1V1 = P2 V2

15
16
Grafik tekanan versus volume. 17
12.6
Pengaruh tekanan terhadap volume suatu gas.18
12.7
Suatu sample gas N2 dengan volume
8,00 L pada tekanan 500 Torr.
Bagaimana tekanan gas nitrogen
tersebut harus diubah agar volume
menjadi 3,00 L? (T konstan).

19
volume diturunkan  tekanan dinaikkan

P1V1 = P2 V2
Masukkan informasi yang diberikan ke
dalam persamaan di atas dan hitunglah P2.

P1V1 (500 torr)(8.00 L)


P2 = = 1
= 1.33 x 10 torr
V2 3.00 L
20
Hukum Charles

21
Pada tekanan konstan, volume suatu gas
berbanding lurus dengan suhu mutlak

V  T
V1 V2
=
T1 T2 22
23
24
Volume-temperature relationship of methane (CH4).
12.8
Absolute Zero on the Kelvin Scale
• If a given volume of any gas at 0oC is
cooled by 1oC the volume of the gas
decreases by 1 .
273
• If a given volume of any gas at 0oC is
cooled by 20oC the volume of the gas
decreases by 20 .
273

25
Absolute Zero on the Kelvin Scale
• If a given volume of any gas at 0oC is
cooled by 273oC the volume of the gas
decreases by 273.
273
• -273oC (more precisely –273.15oC) is
the zero point on the Kelvin scale. It is
the temperature at which an ideal gas
would have 0 volume.
26
12.9

Effect of temperature on the volume of a gas. Pressure


is constant at 1 atm. When temperature increases at
27
constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases.
Jika 255 ml gas nitrogen pada 75oC pada tekanan 3,0
atmosfer dipanaskan pada tekanan tetap sehingga
suhunya menjadi 250oC, berapa volumenya?

V1 = 255 mL T1 = 75oC = 348 K


V2 = ? T2 = 250oC = 523 K
V1T2 (255mL)(523K)
V2 = = = 383 mL
T1 348K 28
Hukum Gay-Lussac

29
pada volume konstan, Tekanan suatu gas,
berbanding lurus dengan suhu Kelvin.

P = kT
P1 P2
=
T1 T2
30
At a temperature of 40oC an oxygen container is at a pressure
of 2.15 atmospheres. If the temperature of the container is
raised to 100oC, what will be the pressure of the oxygen?

Step 3. Put the given information into the


equation and calculate:
P1 = 21.5 atm T1 = 40oC = 313 K
P2 = ? T2 = 100oC = 373 K

P1T2 (21.5 atm)(373 K)


P2 = = = 25.6 atm
T1 313 K 31
Dalton’s Law of
Partial Pressures
32
Each gas in a mixture exerts a pressure
that is independent of the other gases
present.

33
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the


sum of the partial pressures exerted by each of
the gases in the mixture.
Ptotal = Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd….

34
A container contains He at a pressure of 0.50 atm, Ne
at a pressure of 0.60 atm, and Ar at a pressure of 1.30
atm. What is the total pressure in the container?

Ptotal = PHe + PNe+ PAr

Ptotal = 0.5 atm + 0.6 atm + 1.30 atm = 2.40 atm

35
Avogadro’s Law
• The volume of a gas at constant temperature
and pressure is directly proportional to the
number of moles of the gas.

• Mathematically, this means V = kn

Gases
Ideal-Gas Equation

• So far we’ve seen that


V  1/P (Boyle’s law)
V  T (Charles’s law)
V  n (Avogadro’s law)
• Combining these, we get
nT
V
P
Gases
Ideal-Gas Equation

The constant of
proportionality is
known as R, the
gas constant.

Gases
Ideal-Gas Equation

The relationship nT
V
P

then becomes nT
V=R
P
or
PV = nRT Gases
Densities of Gases

If we divide both sides of the ideal-gas


equation by V and by RT, we get

n P
=
V RT

Gases
Densities of Gases

• We know that
moles  molar mass = mass
n=m
• So multiplying both sides by the
molecular mass ( ) gives
m P
=
V RT Gases
Densities of Gases

• Mass  volume = density

• So, m P
d= =
V RT
• Note: One only needs to know the
molecular mass, the pressure, and the
temperature to calculate the density of
a gas. Gases
Density of Gases

m
d= depends
on T and P

v 43
The density of neon at STP is 0.900 g/L. What is the
molar mass of neon?

 0.900 g   22.4 L  g
   = 20.2
 1 L   1 mol  mol

44
The molar mass of SO2 is 64.07 g/mol. Determine the
density of SO2 at STP.

1 mole of any gas


occupies 22.4 L at
STP


d= 
64.07 g   1 mol  g
  = 2.86
 mol   22.4 L  L

45
Molecular Mass
We can manipulate the density equation
to enable us to find the molecular mass
of a gas:
P
d=
RT
Becomes
dRT
= P
Gases
Dalton’s Law of
Partial Pressures
• The total pressure of a mixture of gases
equals the sum of the pressures that
each would exert if it were present
alone.
• In other words,
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + …

Gases
Hubungan antara
mol-massa-volume gas

48
Standard Temperature and
Pressure
Titik acuan umum suhu dan tekanan

Keadaan standar
tekanan dan suhu Standar
STP

273.15 K or 0.00oC
1 atm or 760 torr or 760 mm Hg 49
• Volume of one mole of any gas at STP
= 22.4 L.
• 22.4 L at STP is known as the molar
volume of any gas.

51
52
12.13
Teori Kinetika gas

53
didasarkan pada gerakan partikel gas.
Sebuah gas yang berperilaku persis
seperti yang digariskan oleh Teori
kinetik gas dikenal sebagai gas ideal.
Meskipun tidak ada gas ideal
ditemukan di alam, gas nyata dapat
mendekati perilaku gas ideal dalam
kondisi tertentu suhu dan tekanan.

54
Prinsip Asumsi dari Teori Kinetik gas

1. Gas terdiri dari partikel-partikel


kecil.
2. Jarak antara partikel jauh lebih besar
dibandingkan dengan ukuran partikel
gas.
3. partikel gas tidak memiliki daya tarik
satu sama lain.
55
4. partikel gas bergerak lurus ke segala
arah, sering bertabrakan satu dengan
lain dan dengan dinding wadah.
5. Tidak ada energi hilang oleh
tumbukan dari sebuah partikel gas
dengan gas atau dengan dinding
wadah. Semua tumbukan elastis
sempurna.

56
6. Energi kinetik rata-rata partikel
adalah sama untuk semua gas pada
suhu yang sama, dan nilainya
berbanding lurus dengan temperatur
Kelvin.

57
Suatu sampel gas hidrogen dengan volume 465 ml
pada STP. Jika tekanan tersebut diubah menjadi 950
torr dan suhu diturunkan menjadi 15oC, apa yang akan
yang terjadi terhadap volume gas hidrogen tersebut?

V1PT
V2  1 2
P2T1
(465 ml)  760 torr  (258 K)
V2 = = 352 mL
(950 torr)(273 K) 58
59
60
A balloon filled with 5.00 moles of helium gas is at a
temperature of 25oC. The atmospheric pressure is 750.
torr. What is the balloon’s volume?

Step 1. Organize the given information.


Convert temperature to kelvins.
K = oC + 273
K = 25oC + 273 = 298K
Convert pressure to atmospheres.
1 atm
P = 750. torr x = 0.987 atm
760 torr 61
A balloon filled with 5.00 moles of helium gas is at a
temperature of 25oC. The atmospheric pressure is 750.
torr. What is the balloon’s volume?

Step 2. Write and solve the ideal gas


equation for the unknown.
nRT
PV = nRT V=
P
Step 3. Substitute the given data into the
equation and calculate.
(5.00 mol) (0.0821 L×atm/mol×K)(298 K)
V= = 124 L
(0.987 atm) 62
Determination of Molecular Weights
Using the Ideal Gas Equation
g g
molar mass = mol =
mol molar mass
g
M = molar mass n = mol =
M
g
PV = nRT PV = RT
M
gRT
M=
PV 63
Calculate the molar mass of an unknown gas, if 0.020
g occupies 250 mL at a temperature of 305 K and a
pressure of 0.045 atm.

V = 250 mL = 0.250 L g = 0.020 g

T = 305 K P = 0.045 atm


gRT
M=
PV
(0.020 g)(0.082 L × atm/mol × K)(305 K) g
M= = 44
(0.045 atm) (0.250 L) 64 mol
Stoikiometri yang
melibatkan gas

65
• All calculations are done at STP.
• Gases are assumed to behave as ideal
gases.
• A gas not at STP is converted to STP.

66
Gas Stoichiometry

Primary conversions involved in stoichiometry.

68
Mole-Volume Calculations

Mass-Volume Calculations

69
What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed
from 0.500 mol of potassium chlorate?

• Step 1 Write the balanced equation


2 KClO3  2 KCl + 3 O2
• Step 2 The starting amount is 0.500
mol KClO3. The conversion is
mol KClO3  mol O2  L O2
70
What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed
from 0.500 mol of potassium chlorate?

2 KClO3  2KCl + 3 O2
• Step 3. Calculate the moles of O2, using the
mole-ratio method.
 3 mol O2 
(0.500 mol KClO3 )   = 0.750 mol O2
 2 mol KClO3 

• Step 4. Convert moles of O2 to liters of O2



(0.750 mol O2 ) 
22.4 L 
 = 16.8 L O2
 1 mol  71
What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed
from 0.500 mol of potassium chlorate?

The problem can also be solved in


one continuous calculation.

2 KClO3  2KCl + 3 O2

 3 mol O2   22.4 L 
(0.500 mol KClO3 )     = 16.8 L O2
 2 mol KClO3   1 mol 
72
What volume of hydrogen, collected at 30.0oC and
700. torr, will be formed by reacting 50.0 g of
aluminum with hydrochloric acid?

2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq)  2AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2(g)


Step 1 Calculate moles of H2.

grams Al  moles Al  moles H2

 1 mol Al   3 mol H 2 
50.0 g Al     = 2.78 mol H 2
 26.98 g Al   2 mol Al  73
What volume of hydrogen, collected at 30.0oC and
700. torr, will be formed by reacting 50.0 g of
aluminum with hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq)  2AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2(g)
Step 2 Calculate liters of H2.
• Convert oC to K: 30.oC + 273 = 303 K
• Convert torr to atm:
 1 atm 
700 torr   = 0.921 atm
 760 torr 
74
What volume of hydrogen, collected at 30.0oC and
700. torr, will be formed by reacting 50.0 g of
aluminum with hydrochloric acid?

• Solve the ideal gas equation for V


PV = nRT
nRT
V=
P
(2.78 mol H 2 )(0.0821 L-atm)(303 K)
V= = 75.1 L H 2
(0.921 atm)(mol-K)
75
What volume of nitrogen will react with 600. mL of
hydrogen to form ammonia? What volume of
ammonia will be formed?

N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)

 1 vol N 2 
600. ml H 2   = 200. mL N 2
 3 vol H 2 
 2 vol NH 3 
600. ml H 2   = 400. mL NH 3
 3 vol H 2 
76
Real Gases

In the real world, the


behavior of gases
only conforms to the
ideal-gas equation
at relatively high
temperature and low
pressure.

Gases
Ideal Gas
• Gas ideal mematuhi hukum gas.
Volume molekul-molekul gas ideal
diabaikan dibandingkan dengan volume
yang ditempati gas. Hal ini berlaku pada
semua suhu dan tekanan.
Interaksi antarmolekul antara molekul
gas ideal diabaikan di semua suhu dan
tekanan.

Gases
78
Real Gases
• Penyimpangan dari hukum gas terjadi
pada tekanan tinggi dan suhu rendah.
Pada tekanan tinggi, volume molekul
gas nyata tidak dapat diabaikan
dibandingkan dengan volume yang
ditempati gas
• Pada suhu rendah, energi kinetik dari
molekul gas tidak bisa sepenuhnya
mengatasi gaya tarik menarik
antarmolekul antara molekul. Gases
79
Gas Nyata
• Tidak mengikuti secara sempurna
persamaan PV = nRT
• Dikoreksi menggunakan persaman van
der Waals.

(P  n 2a
V 2 )( V - nb)  nRT

a mengoreksi interaksi antar molekul/atom


b mengoreksi volume gas karena adanya volume molekul
Gases
80
Dalam persamaan van der
Waals
V becomes ( V - nb) P becomes ( P  n a )
2
2
V

Gases
81
n2a
(P + V2 ) (V − nb) = nRT

Gases
82
Sebuah botol 450 mL mengandung 0,500 g gas nitrogen
pada tekanan 744 Torr, Berapa suhu gas tersebut?.

Gunakan hukum gas ideal dan persamaan van der


Waals untuk menghitung tekanan yang diberikan
oleh 10,0 mol sampel amoniak dalam wadah 60,0L
pada 100 ° C. Berapa persen dua hasil perhitungan
berbeda?

Berapa volume hidrogen fluorida pada 743 torr dan 24 °C


akan dihasilkan oleh reaksi 38,3 g xenon difluorida
dengan air berdasarkan persamaan
XeF2 (s) + H2O (l) Xe (g) + O2 (g) + HF (g)
Berapa volume oksigen dan xenon dihasilkan pada suhu dan
tekanan tsb? Gases
83