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Principles of Strategy and Design for

Effective Implementation of KM

EG2KM, Kuala Lumpur,


Sep. 12, 2006

Dr. J.K. Suresh


Associate Vice-President and
Principal Knowledge Manager,
Infosys Technologies, INDIA
jksuresh@infosys.com

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Infosys: Company background
» Business: IT consulting and services (Founded in 1981)
» HQ, Bangalore, India; U.S HQ: Fremont, CA.
» Growth: CAGR of 50% over the last decade; MCap: ~25 B US$
» FY 2005-06 revenues: ~US $2.1 billion with around 50, 000 employees
» 1999 – 2005: Growth of1400%, revenue terms;1000%, employee numbers
» Global Operations, primarily servicing Fortune 500 and Global 1000 clients
located in the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific
» Development Centers: India (8), NA (5), 1 in each U.K., East Asia and
APAC
» Marketing offices: ~ 36 all over the world
» Quest for excellence integral to its social/ cultural fabric from early years
» Pioneers of the Global Delivery Model (GDM) for development of
customized IT solutions
» Level 5: SEI CMM (Capability Maturity Model), PCMM (People Capability
Maturity Model) and CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration)
» Accorded many recognitions in the fields of corporate governance, financial
reporting, and human resource and environment management
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
Infosys: Company background (contd.)
» Structure: Corporate functions (Finance, Planning, Marketing, Quality,
HR, Education & Research, and Information Systems) based at
Bangalore, with small teams at other centers
» Software delivery apparatus: Geos (geographical units), IBUs (Integrated
Business Units), ECUs (Enterprise Capability Units) and other units that
exclusively focus on individual global client accounts
» Solutions & services to enable customer business: Domain specialists in
each of the BU’s, and the central Domain Competency Group (DCG)
» SETLabs (Software Engineering and Technology Labs): Competency
building for horizontal technology areas (e.g., enterprise architecture,
infrastructure, performance and security)
» Infrastructure: Education, learning and development (~ 5% of revenues)
» Quality processes: A major focus area; central Quality department
defines and owns processes for execution of customer engagements. A
network of quality managers is charged with deploying these processes
in the software delivery units (Geos/ IBUs/ ECUs) and ensuring their
adherence
» Process Council: Oversight of entire process definition & deployment

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Infosys: Company background (contd.)
» Global locations extensively networked via dedicated
communication links, monitored from the network operations
center in Bangalore and multiple network hubs located worldwide
» VPN (Virtual Private Network) links connect the company’s
network to those of clients
» Each employee has a dedicated desktop computer, and those
who travel extensively, or are based at a location other than a
development center, also have company-provided laptop
computers and PDAs
» E-mail, instant messaging, and video and audio conferencing are
some of the common communication modes used by employees
» Employees can access the Infosys network through secure
connections from client locations as well as their homes and
hotels anywhere in the world
» Environment: High flux in Business needs, Technology and
Market
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
Knowledge Management: the initial years
“In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; (however,) in
practice, there is...” - Jan LA van de Snepscheut

» Central focus on Management


» Black box approaches
» Content Management
» Collaboration
» Enterprise integration
» Presentation
» People, Process
» Guided by return on investment (ROI)
» Emphasis on intranets, web-sites, repositories,
portals, etc.

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The Field of Knowledge Management

Theory of value
Exchange

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The Core KM Solution
» Store knowledge representations
» encoding of knowledge
» or
» meta-data about knowledge (sources)
» with the right set of “knowledge attributes”
» to enable
» efficient matching of contexts

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The Nature of Knowledge
» It is difficult to
» represent knowledge in a formal language

» capture the context of knowledge

» determine the relevance of knowledge

» determine if two representations are the same

» acquire knowledge from its representation

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


When is KM Needed?
Why, when I only wanted to hire a pair of hands, do I get a whole person?
- Henry Ford

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The KM Journey

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Vision of the Infosys KM Program

To be an organization..

where every employee is empowered by the knowledge of every


other employee;

which believes in leveraging knowledge for innovation;

which is a globally respected knowledge leader;

which believes in knowledge-partnering with customers for


mutual benefit

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


E.g.: Evolution of KM at Infosys Ma High Growth
rk y
Flux
et g
1992: Body of Knowledge Sh lo
ar o
e
c hn
1995: Technical bulletin, online learning Te
1996: Corporate Intranet (Sparsh) hic n At
ap tr itio
g r atio
o t n
1997: Marketing system, process assets, ... Ge men
g
fra ts
e
1998: Project leaders’ toolkit rk Se New
Ma rvi
w ce
1999: People Knowledge Map, corporate KM initiative Ne s
y
i lit Siz
b
2000: Integrated KPortal, Satellite servers f ita e
o
Pr y
ilit Co
b mp
2001: Customization, Subscription, Process level changes r ia lex
Va ity
2002: Process level changes, Skills Central, Integrated Search
Time
2003: Implicit knowledge sharing, KM in Projects, Benefit Measurements, KMail…
2004: KPortal on Extranet, quantification of KM benefits, KM for Client
Facing Infoscions, KDesktop
2005… : KM and Business Value…

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM @ Infosys: Architecture

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Infosys KM Solution Architecture Knowledge
Knowledge
Representation
•Taxonomy
•Taxonomymanagement
management
Representation
•Content Publication
•Content Publication
•Workflows KNOWLEDGE
•Workflows • •Content
•Incentivization Contenttypes
types
•Incentivization • •4-Level
•Metrics 4-LevelTaxonomy
Taxonomy
•Metrics • •Access
•Process AccessRestrictions
Restrictions
•ProcessEngg.
Engg. • •Target Audience
Target Audience
•Training
•Training • •Content
ContentGradation
Gradation
• •Collaborative
CollaborativeContent
Content

Technology
KPortal
Processes •Multiple
•Multipleintegrated
integrated
repositories
repositories
•Discussion
•Discussionforums
• •Facilitated
Facilitateddecentralized
decentralizedarchitecture
architecture People forums
• •Awareness, Facilitation, Motivation •Advanced Search
•Advanced Search
Awareness, Facilitation, Motivation •Technology-assisted reward
•Technology-assisted rewardand
and •Advanced KM
• •Roles:
Roles:Users,
Users,Experts,
Experts,reviewers,
reviewers, recognition mechanisms
recognition mechanisms -•-Advanced
prototypes KMTools
Tools
Authors, Champions •Explicit prototypes
Authors, Champions •Explicit&&Tacit
Tacitknowledge
knowledge
• •Building leverage
Buildingaasharing
sharingculture
culture leverage
• •Self
SelfOrganizing
Organizingcommunities
communities

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KPortal Technology Architecture
Infosys KM leverages technology to provide an ‘Integrated Access’ to
organization-wide Knowledge
 Content-rich auto-generated Project
Profiles

Search  Process Assets belonging to projects


Results with matching project profiles

Search
 Knowledge Assets contributed by projects
Query with matching project profiles

Integrated “Search” through KPortal

Project Mgt
Satellite Tools Doc upload
repositories Process Assets
& KPortal Data
System
Intranet Websites Skills Database

Knowledge Taxonomy:
The organizational information Backbone

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM Process Architecture
Infosys has integrated KM process within the business workflow

KM woven into the project execution process


 KM Processes for specific business functions
 Project Primes identified at project level
 Facilitated by the KM Champions, Senior Manager, Quality Manager and
Process Consultant networks
 Contribution and usage of knowledge assets tracked
 Usage metrics analyzed for business benefits – Quality &Productivity numbers
Global KM Processes
 Process for administering reward and recognition programs
 Process for content publication
 IPR
 Review mechanism
 Content grading and retirement scheme

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Knowledge Quality Core Process
Embodiment Quality Content Quality
•Structure •Verifiability
•Presentation •Perceived Utility
•Clarity •Reliability
•………… •………..

Reviewers rate Knowledge Members rate Knowledge


asset by awarding points asset by awarding points
RReviewer RMember

Asset Usage Awarded points are stored


along with comments
•Frequency
•Instances
•Recency
•Within Community
•Other Communities
•……… Member Rating

RUsage +RRecency +...


Usage Data Modulation of Community Rating
Asset Ratings
RComposite
Rating for Knowledge Asset

Rating in a Self-Assessing Knowledge Community

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM People Architecture: To promote knowledge sharing

Fund and sustain the program

Sponsors

Own the initiative within each


org. unit – SPOCs for
IBUs/ECUs
Owners

Hold full-time or part-time


responsibility for implementing
Enablers the program

Create, validate and consume


Users
knowledge

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


… KM People Architecture: WIIFM? – the key to KM
success
Increase Nurture
usage /
Increase trials. involvement
Hold existing
users

Draw in using Demonstrate benefits


Curiosity Visibility / Recognition
factor, Build
awareness, Make Testimonials
mandatory
Generate trial Incentives
cannot be
Demonstrate benefits removed
Visibility / altogether.
K-Sharing

Recognition
Different
flavors of
Incentives, incentives at
Incentives Visibility / various
Promotional tools recognition
stages are
needed to
promote KM
KM Maturity 

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Knowledge Management – Trends
Content GrowthinPortal
8000
C o n trib u to rs to P o rtal
Documents Published

7000 6000

6000 5000

No., Authors
5000 4000

4000
3000

3000
2000

1000
2000

0
1000
T im e
0
Time

Doc access
250000
1. Threads in discussion forums
2. Knowledge artifacts derived
200000

150000 through other collaborative tools


100000
3. Project artifacts
50000
4. Mentoring sessions, knowledge-
0
contacts, enabling sessions
TIME -->
facilitated
5. ...

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM: Benefits Realized

"Not everything that can be counted counts and not


everything that counts can be counted" - Albert Einstein

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Quantitative Benefits: Approach
»Staged introduction of metrics: health, participation,
performance, effectiveness and self-sustenance
»KM surveys administered every year
» Acceptance, acculturation, participation, interest, potential
and benefits
» Average effort savings through KM practices
» Pain points to be remedied through KM
»Phased data analyses
» Health and participation
» Conformance and performance
» KM effectiveness and business benefits

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Metrics to assess KM performance
Level Metrics Responsibility
• KM contribution and usage metrics
• KM effort metrics
• Correlation between KM metrics and KM Group
project performance measures (Q&P
Org. level metrics)

• KM contribution and usage metrics


• KM effort metrics KM Group
• Correlation between KM metrics and Delivery
Practice Unit project performance measures (Q&P Managers
metrics)

• KM contribution and usage metrics KM Group


• KM effort metrics
Delivery Unit Process
• Correlation between KM metrics and
Consultant
project performance measures (Q&P
metrics) Delivery Manager

Project • KM contribution and usage metrics KM prime


• KM effort metrics PM
• Qualitative benefit measures Process
Consultant

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Data Analysis: Health, Performance and Conformance

No. of Assets or Times Accessed


2500
2000
2000
Asset
1500
Demand
1000
1000
Technology
500 Asset Industry Segment
Supply Service Offering
0 0 Project Mgt.
Jan - M ar Ap r - J u n Jul - S e p O ct - D e c Qtr 1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4

Knowledge Assets across Domains


Knowledge Assets Captured 40000

800 Failed Queries

20000 Successful Queries

600

IS

IS

IS
IS

TEC

TEC

TEC

TEC
SO

SO

SO

SO
PM

PM

PM
PM

400
Jan-Mar Apr-Jun Jul-Sep Oct-Dec
Jan - Mar Apr - Jun Jul - Sep Oct - Dec

Number of Users over Time Availability of Assets Demanded (PM: Project


Management, IS: Industry Segment, SO: Service Offering, Tec:
Technology)

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM has resulted in significant internal benefits
Better quality metrics in high KM-aware projects!
Parameter High K-sharing Low K-Sharing Baseline
Cost of Quality 84 97 100
Defects/kFP 96 109 100

Analytical Studies
Influence of Skills (Supply/Demand) and Knowledge Reuse on Project Performance
(Productivity, COQ, Defect Density)
•Study shows expected correlations with Productivity & COQ respectively

Credentials
“A prospect wanted a case on Call Center Support for a Product. I was
aware that BM was providing the same - but what I was looking for was
details.
I tried sending several mails out to PL's … got a few lines… … turned to
KPortal… found an extremely detailed Infosys & BM Engagement write up.
… I got all the info I needed and more”
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
Perceived benefits from KM
» Results of an annual KM Survey (sample size: 400) …
» 79% said the knowledge-sharing environment in the company
encouraged the documentation of knowledge for future use
» 87% asserted that whenever possible, they tried to reuse existing
organizational knowledge rather than start from scratch
» More than 80% believe that their team’s quality of work and
productivity have improved
» 70% said good knowledge-sharing practices had helped in delivering
tangible benefit to customers
» 73% felt they saved more than 1 person-day in the last six months
by using the existing knowledge architecture, with 14% saying they
saved more than 8 person-days
» Three-quarters said that when needed, they were easily able to tap
organizational knowledge in doing their work

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM and productivity: Statistical Correlations

100
Productivity

50

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
Know le dge Acce ss Inde x

Fig. 11.11. Effect of Knowledge Re-Use on Productivity

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Business Unit-wise KM Metrics

Biz Units Content % of Leverage Per Person Per Person % of KMail Person days
Relevance Experts Usage Contributio users ** Saved through
Index (%) n Reuse

1 12.9 24.1 600 1.87 0.003 19.7 0


2 11.9 26.7 137 2.09 0.015 7.5 9
3 15.0 26.3 249 2.1 0.008 8.5 2
4 13.8 26.8 128 2.78 0.022 4.8 39
5 15.8 28.9 295 2.62 0.009 8.8 1
6 13.7 31.1 140 1.34 0.01 3.2 2
7 10.5 27.6 164 1.26 0.008 5.3 0
8 12.8 30.9 391 2.29 0.006 9.1 12
9 9.4 23.6 153 0.95 0.006NA 0
10 23.9 23.3 257 2.77 0.011 5.9 0

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Business Unit-wise KM Metrics (continued)
#K-Assets accessed during the month / Total # K-Assets
contributed during the month
Expertise percentage
Percentage of employees registered as experts
Content usage Index
# K-Assets accessed during the month / # employees in the unit

Content contribution Index


# K-Assets submitted during the month / # employees in the unit

Percentage of KMail users


# of actual KMail users/ # of eligible KMail users in the unit
Person days saved
Number of person days saved as reported

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM @ Infosys:
Thought Leadership

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Query
Query forward
1
KMail
3
KAgent
4
COMMUNITY
6
Responses Response KSummarizer

forwarded 5
Repositorize
No result 2 responses • Broadcast and Delivery of
In repository knowledge available in the
intranet universe
Repository • K-Feed based on user
KPortal PIS profile and work context

KSpeak
Speech interface
To K-Portal
Infosys is constantly
developing solutions to
enhance knowledge
KPortal
exchange & collaboration
KSummarizer
Automatic Summarization
(prescribed compression)

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KMail: An Automatic e-mail Based
System for Real-time Collaboration
Sends a query
1

Responses are sent


with zipped results
attached
4
User A Satisfied
2 Results found

Repository A Repository B

Repository C

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KMail (Continued)
Query is
Forward to Experts forwarded
4 5

8 6
Responses Experts Expert List A
User A are forwarded respond

7 Add responses to
Earlier repository
Sends a query
1
3
Responses are
sent with zipped
results attached
2 Results found

Repository A Repository B

Repository C

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Technologies to Enhance KM tools and systems
KSpeak
KSpeak:
• Nuance Foundation
Speech interface SpeechObjects - voice
to the recognition software
knowledge portal • DiaLogic card - telephone to
computer interface (Analog)
• Java

KSummarizer
KPortal • Focused summaries of business
and technical information
KSummarizer • Condensed text for mobile users
Automatic • Internally developed extraction-
Summarization type summarization algorithm
(prescribed • word-frequencies, sentence-
compression) of length, sentence-position…
documents • Java

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Technologies to Enhance KM tools and systems
(Continued)

KAgent: Semi-intrusive,
Proactive, Intelligent Agent

KSummarizer

KAgent

KAgent is a customizable knowledge agent


designed to provide knowledge assistance
proactively and non-intrusively.
Implementation is based on end-user
context sensing, communicating with the
knowledge environment and providing
interactive help.

• Proactively broadcast and deliver knowledge


KPortal PIS available in the intranet universe
• Significant time and effort saving for end-
user
• K-Feed tailored for specific user profile and
work context

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KM@Infosys
First Indian Company to win the Global MAKE Award. Hat-trick in 2005
The only Indian Company in the MAKE HALL of FAME
Only Indian Company to win the MAKE Asia Award every year since
inception in 2002

•Accenture •McKinsey & Company


•BMW •Microsoft
•BP •Nokia
•PricewaterhouseCoopers
•Buckman Laboratories •Science Applications (SAIC)
•Dell •Samsung Group
•Ernst & Young •Siemens
•General Electric •Sony
•Google •3M
•IBM •Toyota Motor
•Wipro Technologies
•Infosys Technologies
(Reference: http://www.knowledgebusiness.com. Teleos – The KNOW network conducts the MAKE
survey. MAKE and KNOW are service marks of Teleos) © J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
References
Exhaustive coverage of:
1. » The Dimensions of KM
» How a KM solution evolves
with maturity
For each lesson:
» The “why”
» Illustrations and analogies
» Actual solution from
KM@Infosys
» Practical guidelines
» Pitfalls of ignoring the lesson

2.“What is the K in KM Technology,” Kavi Mahesh


and J.K. Suresh, Electronic Journal of Knowledge
Management Volume 2 Issue 2 2004(11-22).
www.ejkm.com ISSN 1479-4411. 17. © J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
KM@Infosys: Publications
Book: “Ten Steps to Maturity in Knowledge Management: Lessons in
Economy,” Suresh J.K. and Mahesh Kavi, © 2006, Chandos
Publishing, Oxford, UK
Book Chapters:
"Knowledge and Business Process Management" (ISBN 1-59140-036-
8), Mahesh Kavi, Mahind CS and Kochikar VP, Ed. Vlatka Hlupic, ©
2002, Idea Group publishing, Hershey, PA, USA
"Leading with Knowledge“ (ISBN 0-07-049960-8), J.K. Suresh, © 2003,
McGraw-Hill publications
Case: “Towards a Knowledge-Sharing Organization: Some Challenges
Faced on the Infosys Journey” (ISBN 1-59140-259-X), Annals of
Cases on Information Technology (ACIT), Suresh J.K. and Kochikar
V.P., © 2003, Idea Pub., Hershey, Pa, USA
Invited Entry: in “Encyclopedia of Information Science and
Technology, Vol. 1-V,” titled, “Experiential Perspective on Knowledge
Management,” Suresh J.K. and Kochikar V.P., © 2004, Idea Pub.,
Hershey, Pa, USA

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Journals KM@Infosys: Publications
“Emergent by Design: Performance and Transformation at Infosys Technologies,”
Raghu Garud, Arun Kumaraswamy, and V. Sambamurthy,
OrganizationScience, Vol. 17, No. 2, March–April 2006, pp. 277–286, issn
1047-7039 eissn 1526-5455 06 1702 0277
“Vicious and Virtuous Circles in the Management of Knowledge: The Case of
Infosys Technologies”, Raghu Garud and Arun Kumaraswamy, MIS Quarterly
Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 9-33/March 2005
“What is the K in KM Technology,” Suresh J.K. and Mahesh Kavi, Electronic
Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 2 Issue 2 2004(11-22).
www.ejkm.com ISSN 1479-4411. 17.
Conferences/ Invited Talks
“Knowledge Management: A Practitioner’s Account,” Suresh J.K., in the Taiwan
Knowledge Management Conference, Taipei, Oct 2005
“Linking different taxonomies into one central taxonomy”, Mahind C.S., “Creating
a workable knowledge classification system”, Arkgroup Asia, Singapore in April
2004
“Measuring the value of KM Implementation”, Suresh J.K., KM Asia 2003, Nov
2003, Singapore
“Knowledge Management at Infosys”, Suresh J.K., Global Knowledge
Management Forum (GKMF), Aug 2003, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
KM@Infosys: Other Publications
Interviews with Dr. J.K. Suresh
• “India KM-ready in every sense: Infy”, CIOL, Mar 2004
• “How Infosys embeds knowledge management to drive customer intimacy”, KM
Review Magazine, Melcrum Publishing, March 2004
• “Software Companies Capitalise On KM Solutions”, The Financial Express, Jun 2003
• “Your say: Knowledge Management in Asia”, KM Magazine, Ark Publications, July
2003
• "Country Focus Interview”, KM Magazine, Ark Publications, May 2003
• “Knowledge management: the new mantra – the JKSuresh interview”, Economic
Times, Dec 2002
Case Studies
• “Knowledge Management at Infosys Technologies Limited”, Case Repository, IIM/A,
2002
• “KM at Infosys Technologies”, Case Repository, IIM, Lucknow, 2001
• “Infosys: Architecture of a Scalable Corporation”, Stern Business School, New York
Patent
• ”Automated Method for Quantitative Measurement of Benefits in a Plurality of Self-
assessing, Knowledge Sharing Communities” (PCT application filed)

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Thank You

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


A Walk through the KM portal
of Infosys..

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


KShop Homepage KShop Home
page

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Search for Knowledge Assets

KShop Search
Interface
- Shows the
information
architecture

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Search Results
A typical
Document

Search results –
Rated according
to KCU*

KCU is knowledge currency unit – The instrument for document rating and personal rewards
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
Document Rating and Reward/Recognition Scheme

The KCU
scoreboard –
Recognizes the
most active
knowledge sharers
and contributors

Rating interface
Includes quality
and usefulness
of the document

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Project Snapshot Search
Project Snapshots –
Gives a brief
overview of each
project including the
key people involved,
technologies used
etc

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Experts Search

Expert search
interface

A typical expert
details
- Includes the
knowledge areas
proficient in

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Communities – Discussion Forum

The discussion forum


interface view
- This is integrated
with MS Outlook

A typical discussion
thread

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


“KM in Projects” Process Kit
The KM Kit – KM
Practitioner’s and
adopter’s training &
compliance kit

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


1st screen of the Submission Interface

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Common Lessons in KM?
» Formulate a KM strategy
» Design KM solution and KM plan
» Prepare for changes
» Constitute a “high level” KM team
» Bring in KM consultants
» Invest: “what you reap is what you sow”
» Manage centrally
» Buy KM products
» Entrust quality department with KM quality
» Measure benefits and demonstrate ROI

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


NO!
“Knowledge managers are often in error, but never in doubt!”
- with apologies to Lev Landau

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Uncommon Lessons in KM
» People are not at the centre of focus of KM;
Knowledge is
» Hence called KM, not PM
» Managing knowledge is not just yet another
problem in management (focus on K, not M)
» Need to study K
» Viewing KM as Change Management may not be
best
» Focus should be on not making changes
» High-profile KM consultants may be a bad idea
» The lesson of disempowerment

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


More Uncommon Lessons
» KM is a journey, not a solution to a problem
» “rolling out” may be a bad metaphor
» Every KM instance involves discoveries
» No “type A”, “type B”, etc.
» Measurement in KM is hardly about ROI
» More important to measure other things
» KM’s ultimate objective is to eliminate itself
» “Build, Own, Operate, Disappear”

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Misleading Distinctions in KM
» Tacit vs. explicit knowledge
» Content vs. collaboration
» People vs. technology
» etc.

Important distinctions in KM
» Direct vs. indirect knowledge transfer
» Formal vs. informal KM
» Knowledge-level vs. information-level meta-data
» etc.

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The Basic Lesson

Economy in KM

» Do not invest too much in KM


» Do not try to “manage” (change) too much
» There are no shortcuts in KM
» KM takes time

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Steps towards … Maturity in KM
Strategy
1. Economy of Plan: Evolution
2. Economy of Change: Non-intrusive
3. Economy of Control: Disempowerment
Design
4. Economy of Scope: Knowledge dynamics
5. Economy of Effort: Decentralization
6. Economy in Deployment: Architecture
Practice
7. Economy in Assessment: Quality
8. Economy in Promotion: Recognition
9. Economy in Evolution: Measurement
Future
10. Beyond KM

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 1: Evolutionary Strategy
» Evolve the strategy as the
journey progresses

» Strategy evolves in each


dimension
» who is involved
» what is managed
» which systems are needed
» how processes change
» what to measure
» how to promote

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 2: Non-Intrusive Changes
» Don’t make changes
» or
» Hide changes

» To reduce expectations

» Avoid disruptions

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 3: Disempowered KM Team

» Make it difficult to enforce changes


» Keep it outside of main-line business
» Augment it with top-level guidance and
support

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 4: Scope Defined by K Dynamics
» Not for all
» Travel metaphor for knowledge transfer
» Identify sources and destinations
» Determine volume of flow
» Design pathways
» Expand scope incrementally

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 5: Decentralized Operations
» Decentralize
» Content repositories
» Content management processes
» Technology systems
» People and responsibilities
» Centralize (to avoid knowledge
fragmentation):
» Classification scheme
» Overall KM strategy
» Quality policy
» Promotion schemes
» Where “aggregation, normalization, and
standardization” are needed

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 6:Adaptable Enterprise Architecture

» KM lives in an enterprise environment

» Integrate with business/MIS systems

» Anticipate changes

» A component and services architecture for KM

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 7: Self-Assessing Quality System
» Who says what is good?

» Self-assessing communities
» With formal review processes

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 8: Promotion through Recognition
» Start with incentives

» Switch to recognition

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 9: Measurement throughout KM
Journey
» Measure
» Quantity
» Usage
» contribution
» Knowledge gaps
» Process conformance
» Satisfaction
» Perceived productivity
» Derived quality
» Knowledge capital
» Brand value

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Lesson 10: Looking Beyond KM
» Consider all knowledge-related functions:

» Recruitment

» Outsourcing and Supply Chain

» Education and training

» Compensation and benefits

» R&D
» From KM to Knowledge Resource Planning

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Final Lesson: KM as a Way of Life
» KM should be like E-Mail

» Everybody uses it

» Not much regulation

» No promotion

» Well-integrated

» Standard products
» Why have a literacy program if everyone is
literate?
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
From knowledge are all beings born,
With knowledge they live,
And into knowledge they merge in the end.
Taittiriyopanishad (9-5-1)

All great enterprise is characterized by an optimism


of the spirit, and the pessimism of the intellect
- Anon

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Questions?

Thank You

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The 21st Century Organization
Why, when I only wanted to hire a pair of hands, do I get a whole person?
- Henry Ford

»The Pervasion of Complexity


»The rise of the tertiary sector
»The world of objects vs. that of the mind
»Determinacy vs. Indeterminacy: E.g., Newton vs. Liebnitz
»Space-Time Issues
»Globalization: Diverse locations, languages, cultures
»Outsourcing: Extensible organizational boundaries
»Exchange Relationships
»Knowledge as IP: Dominant expression of capital today?
»The economics of knowledge: Public vs. positional good
© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006
KM: (Yet) Another Definition
» Strategic management of
» people
» and
» knowledge representations
» along with associated content and information
» using
» technology
» and
» processes
» by transferring knowledge
» directly between people
» or
» indirectly through systems
» to optimize
» knowledge sharing and utilization
» and
» derive overall benefits to the organization.

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


The KM Problem
» Given
» a present context with a knowledge need
» Find
» the most appropriate
» prior contexts where
» relevant knowledge was acquired or applied
» or
» someone who
» can provide the knowledge
» or
» point to a source of knowledge

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006


Data, Information and Knowledge
» Data Attributes: Record structure, syntax, size, encoding
» Information Attributes: Language, dialect, version,
template and format, author’s name, date, previous
usage statistics, ISBN and other classification numbers,
an expert’s telephone number and address
» Knowledge Attributes: describe the knowledge itself (KI)
as well as its applicability in a context (KC)
» KI: Aboutness, gist, ontological mappings
» KC: Intended target audience, background assumed, ratings and
reviews, author’s knowledge profile, conditions or constraints to
be considered in applying the knowledge

© J K Suresh, Infosys Technologies Ltd., India, 2006