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SEC 8.

2: TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

Example
  
3 2
cos xdx cos x cos xdx
Find  cos x dx
3

  (1  sin 2 x) cos xdx

Example

5 2
Find sin x cos x dx

  
5 2 4 2
sin x cos x dx sin x cos x sin x dx

  (1  cos 2 x) 2 cos 2 x sin xdx

TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

 sin
m n
x cos x dx

cos  odd sin  odd

n is odd m is odd

1 save one cos with dx 1 save one sin

2 use sin x  1- cos x
2 2
2 use cos x  1- sin x
2 2

to express the remaining to express the remaining

factors in terms of sin factors in terms of cos

5 2
sin x cos x dx
  
3 2
cos xdx cos x cos xdx
  sin 4 x cos 2 x sin x dx
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

sin cos
odd even
even odd
odd odd
even even

sin  even 1 use half angle

cos  even sin 2 x  12 (1- cos 2 x)
cos2 x  12 (1  cos 2 x)
 dx
4
sin
2 sometimes helpful to use
 1
4  1  cos 2 x 2
dx sin x cos x  12 sin 2 x
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

we use the identity

cos2 x  12 (1  cos 2 x)

to eliminate a square root.

Example 

 1  cos 4 x dx
4
Find
0
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

We can use a similar strategy to

evaluate integrals of the form

 tan
m n
x sec x dx

Example

 tan u  tan x  du  sec 2 xdx

6 4
Find x sec x dx
sec 2 x  1  tan 2 x

Example

 u  sec x  du  sec x tan xdx

5 3
Find tan x sec x dx
tan 2 x  1  sec 2 x
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

 tan
m n
x sec x dx

sec  even tan  odd

n is even m is odd

2 use sec x  1  tan x

2 2
2 use tan 2
x  1  sec 2
x
to express the remaining to express the remaining
factors in terms of tan factors in terms of sec
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

tan sec
odd even
even odd
odd odd
even even

tan sec
even odd
the guidelines are not as clear-cut. We may need to use identities,
integration by parts, and occasionally a little ingenuity.
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

tan sec the guidelines are not as clear-cut. We may

even need to use identities, integration by parts, and
odd occasionally a little ingenuity.

Example
If an even power of tangent appears with an

 xdx
3 odd power of secant, it is helpful to express
Find sec the integrand completely in terms of sec x

Powers of sec x may require integration by

parts, as shown in the following example.
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

Example

3
Find sec xdx
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

REMARK
Integrals of the form

m n
cot x csc x dx
can be found by similar methods because
of the identity

1  cot 2 x  csc 2 x

m n
cot x csc x dx

csc  even cot  odd

n is even m is odd

1 save one csc 2 1 save one csc x cot x

csc x  1  cot x
2 2
2 use cot 2 x  csc 2 x  1
2
to express the remaining to express the remaining
factors in terms of cot factors in terms of csc
Product of Sines and Cosines

 cos mx cos nx dx
 sin mx sin nx dx
 sin mx cos nx dx

EXAM-2 Term-122
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

Products of Powers of Sines

Sines and and Cosines
Cosines

TRIGONOMETRIC
INTEGRALS

Eliminating
Powers of tan x Square
and sec x Roots
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS

  f (cos x)sin
2
f (tan x)sec
xdx
  xdx

du du

 f (sec x)sec
 x tan
xdx
du
 f (sin x)cos
 xdx

du

TRIGONOMETRIC
INTEGRALS

2
f (cot x)csc
xdx

du

 f (csc x)csc
 x cot
xdx
du