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What are we going to learn today?

• Concept of Educational Psychology.

• Brief Introduction of Arnold Gesell.
• Brief Introduction of Robert Havighurst.
• Current Issues of Language Development.
• Current Issues of Individual Differences.
• Arnold’s Language Acquisition Theory & Educational Implication.
• Arnold’s Individual Differences Theory & Educational Implication.
• Havighurst’s Language Development Theory & Educational Implication.
• Havighurst’s Individual Differences Theory & Educational Implication.
• Conclusion.
What is Educational Psychology?


What is Educational Psychology?
What is Education?
• Crow and Crow, 1954  Education is a dynamic force in the life
of every individual influencing his physical, mental, emotional,
social and ethical development.
• JamesWelton  Education is an attempt on the part of adult
members of the human society to shape the development of
the coming generation in accordance with its own ideals of life.
• M. J. Langeveld  Education is every interaction that happens
is every association that occurs between adults with children is
a field or a state where the educational work in progress.
What is Educational Psychology?
What is Education?

“to bring out”

@ “to nourish”
“to lead out” @
“to draw out”

• Education as ‘educere’ is more acceptable as it means leading an individual from

ignorance to knowledge.
• General definition  Process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of
knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
What is Educational Psychology?
What is Psychology?

Psyche Soul, mind

Logos Study of
• Eric Pettifor  An art which presents itself as science.
• H. D. Hamm  Scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals.
• Tom Bolling  A science of description and application used for the
interpretation, prediction, development, and improvement of human behavior.
• General definition  The science of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of
conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought.
What is Educational Psychology?
What is Educational Psychology?
• Martyn Long  An area of applied psychology that uses
psychological theories and techniques to consider how
we think and learn, and how we can address the learning
needs of students.
• JuliePayette  The branch of psychology that
specializes in understanding teaching and learning in
educational settings.
• Combination or overlapping of 2 separate fields of
study: Psychology and Education.
What is Educational Psychology?
How should I
conduct a class?

What can be
done to
Why do some improve that
individuals learn
more than
Who is Arnold Gesell?
• Full name: Arnold Lucius Gesell
• Born: 21st June 1880, Alma, Wisconsin
• Death: 29th May 1961, New Haven, Connecticut
• Education:
 1906  Doctorate in Psychology at Clark University.
 1915  Medicine at Yale University, received M.D.
• Career:
 Done research together with G. Stanley Hall on child
study movement.
 Interested in the causes and treatment of childhood
disabilities, he began studying at University of
Wisconsin Medical School in physiology.
Who is Arnold Gesell?
• Served as an assistant professor at Yale University
while still pursuing medicine.
• He developed the Clinic of Child Development there
and received his Doctorate in 1915.
• Full professorship at Yale.
• He wrote several books, such as:
 The Mental Growth of the Preschool Child (1925).
 An Atlas of Infant Behaviour (1934).
 Infant and Child in the Culture of Today (co-
authored with Frances Ilg, 1943).
 The Child from Five to Ten (1946).
Arnold’s Language Acquisition Theory
• 40-50 weeks: A child begins to produce meaningful sounds, which might be
simple words or childish nicknames.
• Age 1 to 2: The child's vocabulary expands and pronunciation becomes
clearer. They begin to use longer phrases and very simple sentences.
• Age 2 to 3: The child begins to communicate in complete sentences.
Language becomes a tool for thinking and the child will move beyond very
simple ideas to more abstract ones.
• Age 3 to 4: The child asks a lot of questions, using language as a means to
expand their knowledge of the world. He or she will also become able to
make generalizations.
• Age 4 to 5: The child has a basic mastery of the language.
Educational Implication
Gesell and Second Language Acquisition
• Gesell stressed that children under 10 are emotionally predisposed to learn
additional languages because they still view languages as fun and playful.
Developmentally, they are still ready to learn and to communicate.
• As he himself put it, "The young child below the age of 10 enjoys language
experience... With favourable motivation, he is emotionally amenable to a
second or even a third language."
• Frances added that children below the age of 10 are intellectually better
equipped to study language.
• She felt that their natural inclinations for imitation and expansion at that
age would lend themselves naturally to the acquisition of another language.
Arnold Individual Differences Theory
• Gesell believe about individual differences
• Did hundreds of hours carefully observing children’s behaviour
• There are sequence to development
• By observing the current skills , then you know the patterns of
development you will able to predict what comes next
• Milestones : skills or behaviour exhibited at certain points of the
development that let us know children are developing typically
• He observed and documented milestones in the area of
- motor
- Adaptive
- Language
- Personal social
Observation of Children
• Over 30 years of research and observations
• Gesell observed thousands of children and established norms of behavior
throughout childhood.
• He grouped these behaviours into ten major areas.
• He called these areas Gradients of Growth.
• developmental milestones in ten major areas: motor characteristics,
personal hygiene, emotional expression, fears and dreams, self and sex,
interpersonal relations, play and pastimes, school life, ethical sense, and
philosophic outlook.
• Research by the Gesell Institute of Human Development has shown that children’s
growth is not always an even ride from less to more maturity. Instead, smooth, calm
behavior alternates with unsettled, uneven behavior.
• Some experts in the field refer to this as going through periods of “equilibrium” when
children are more a joy to be with versus “disequilibrium” when their behavior can be
more challenging.
• It is almost as if children need to take two steps back developmentally before taking
a huge leap forward. They often gain new skills during these difficult phases.
• So, if your child’s behavior seems to take a turn for the worse or if he seems to be
more difficult to manage, it may be that a stage of equilibrium has given way to a
stage of disequilibrium. You are experiencing the roller coaster of development first-
Educational Implication
How this apply to the classroom

• Teachers use observation and recording of children behaviour

• Teachers periodically developmentally screen their children to identify
possibility of delay
• Teachers plan experiences for their children that will support the strengths
and abilities the children have exhibited
• Teachers carefully consider previous and follow up skills so that the scope
and sequence of the curriculum builds on earlier learning
Who is Robert Havighurst?
• Full name: Robert James Havighurst
• Born: 5th June 1900, De Pere, Wisconsin
• Death: 31st January 1991, Richmond, Indiana
• Education:
 Honorary Degree Sc. from Adelphi University (1962)
 Hon. L.L.D. from Ohio Wesleyan University (1663)
• Career:
 Published papers in journal of physics and chemistry
about the structure of the atom in 1924.
 Took postgraduate at Harvard University, studying
atomic structure and publishing papers in journals of
physics and chemistry.
Who is Robert Havighurst?
 1928  went into field of experimental education.
 He became an assistant professor at the University of
 1940  became an education professor at the University
of Chicago in the University’s Committee on Human
Development, working in the field of aging.
 Interested in international and comparative aspects of
 He wrote several books and published many papers and
his well-known book was called “Human Development
and Education.”
 Inducted in the International Adult and Continuing
Education Hall of Fame.
• Introduced the concept of developmental tasks – people attempt to learn the
tasks required of them by society to which they are living
• Taskschange with age as each society has age-graded expectations for
• Successful achievement → happiness and success with later tasks

• Unsuccessful achievement → unhappiness, social disapproval, and difficulty

with later tasks.
• Thereare sensitive periods which he called teachable moments for learning
developmental tasks – times when the person is most ready to learn new ability
• Once the sensitive period is over, learning may still occur

• Language skills continue to develop as one learns more complex ways of using
• Thesequence of language development is similar for all children, no matter
which language they are
Early childhood tasks (birth – 6 years)
• Using language to describe physical surroundings and social understandings

Middle childhood tasks (6 – 12 years)

• Developing fundamental skills in reading and writing



• Age 1 – early one-word period (e.g., “baba”)

• Age
2 – begin to name & label people & objects in his environment (e.g.,
“Mommy” and “Dog”)
• Age 2.5 – begin to combine words into two-word sentences (e.g., “More milk”
and “Mommy outside”)
• Age 3 – add at least 1 more word to their phrases; begin to use pronouns (he, she,
it), articles (a, an, the) & simple prepositions (in, on, at) (e.g., “Me go daddy” and
“the cat on chair”)
• Age 4 – begin to use combinations of four to six words; adjectives begin to appear
(e.g., “she has a cute doll”)
• Age5 – complex utterance period; produces phrases > 6 words in length; express
concepts of past and future time (e.g., “I saw a dog at the park yesterday.”); use
contractions (can’t, don’t)
Stages of Reading Development

Emergent Progressing Transitional Fluent

Emergent Progressing
• Understand concept of print – left • Rely less on pictures
→ right, top → bottom • Start to attend to punctuation
• 1-to-1 word matching by finger • Begin to monitor own reading &
pointing self correct
• Use picture clues • Enjoy reading aloud
• Recognize difference between a
letter & a word
• Simple story line
Transitional Fluent
• Use multiple sources of information • More challenging vocabulary
(meaning, language structure, visual) • Detect & correct errors, often silently
• Make prediction while reading • More complex story line & concepts
• Longer & more complex texts • Few to no illustrations
• Engage in discussion about what is • Variety of genres for information &
read pleasure
Stages of Writing Development

Preliterate: Drawing Preliterate: Scribbling

Early Emergent: Emergent: Random-
Letter-like forms letters/ letter strings

Transitional: Writing Fluency: Conventional

via invented spelling spelling
Promoting Literacy Development in Young
• Preschool years are the important time – help prevent reading difficulties
• Rely on dialogue contexts in which the teacher engages with children in 1-to-1,
small group & whole group settings
• Encourage children’s involvement with print by reading in small groups
• Having volunteers read to children individually - allow children to turn pages,
pause to look at pictures/ ask questions, and read along with an adult
• Understanding of literacy is enhanced when adults point out the important
features of print
• Statements - “We start at the front, not at the back of the book”; “Move your
finger; you’re covering the words and I can’t see to read them”; “Point to each
word as you say it, not to each letter, like this”.
What are the current issues in language
Inappropriate views for

Language development
‘Digital Nanny’ disorders
• Differences in learning rates are difficult to deal with – by ignoring the
differences and teach the whole class at a single pace
• Low achievers → fail – fail to catch up with the lessons; high achievers – become
bored at the slow pace of instruction
• Some primary & secondary schools place students in classes according to their
• Concentrating low-achieving students in low-track classes - exposes them to too
few positive role models
• Teachers of low-track classes are less enthusiastic & less well organized

• Studentsin lower-track classes – far more likely to become delinquent & truant
& to drop out of school
• Experience a rapid loss of self-esteem
Havighurst’s Personality Development
• Developmental tasks arise from the interaction between physical processes,
personal attributes, and societal expectations
I. Environment – behaviour, attitude, activities
II. Gender – siblings (attitude)
III. Heredity – height, size, colour of hair, shape of nose
IV. Education – social, emotional

Educational Implication
• Method of teaching should be linked with individual differences
considering the different abilities and traits individual
• Some co-curricular activities such as drama, music, literary
activities (essay & debate Competition) should be assigned to
children according to their interest
• One-to-one tutoring or small-group tutoring
• Every child grows based on certain levels which each
level is important. Based on that level, we can observe
the development of the child accordingly. Every
development moves alongside certain factors.