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Software – Operating

System
17 Februari 2014
Sistem Komputer
Sistem Komputer
• Hardware
• Software
• Brainware
Software (Perangkat
Lunak)
• Terdiri dari :
– System Software
– Application Software
– Programming Software
System software
 System software membantu menjalankan
perangkat keras komputer dan sistem
komputer.
 Termasuk diantaranya adalah :
device drivers,
diagnostic tools,
operating systems,
servers,
utilities,
windowing systems,
System software
• Tujuan dari system software adalah
agar pengguna tidak terlalu sibuk
dengan detail yang harus dilakukan
saat penggunaan hardware atau
peralatan komputer.
operating systems
 Merupakan kumpulan dari sumber daya
untuk memindahkan, menyimpan dan
memproses data dan untuk
mengendalikan fungsi-fungsi tersebut.
 Program yang sangat penting untuk
menjalankan komputer.
 Setiap komputer yang general-purpose
mempunyai sistem operasi untuk
menjalankan program yang lainnya.
Sistem Operasi
Sistem operasi menjalankan tugas
dasar (basic tasks), seperti
merecognize input dari keyboard,
mengirimkan output ke layar display,
keeping track berkas dan direktori
pada disk, dan mengendalikan divais
seperti disk drive dan printer.
operating systems
operating systems
Sistem Operasi
• multi-user : Mengijinkan dua atau lebih
user untuk menjalankan program pada saat
yang sama. Beberapa sistem operasi
mengijinkan ratusan, bahkan ribuan user
yang ‘concurrent’..
• multiprocessing : Mensupport menjalankan
sebuah program pada lebih dari satu CPU.
• multitasking : Mengijinkan lebih dari satu
program dijalankan secara ‘concurret’
Sistem Operasi
• multithreading : Mengijinkan bagian
yang terpisah dari program tunggal
untuk dijalankan secara ‘concurrent’
• real time: Merespor pada input
secara cepat.
Sistem Operasi
• Termasuk dalam System software
• Sistem Operasi (OS) mengendalikan
hampir semua fungsi yang ada pada
komputer.
• Seluruh komputer mengandalkan sistem
operasi (OS) untuk memberikan
interface (antar muka) untuk interaksi
antara user, application, dan hardware.
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 13
Inc.
Tugas Sistem Operating
 Sistem Operasi boot komputer / start
komputer dan mengendalikan sistem
berkas.
 Hampir semua sistem operasi modern
dapat mendukung lebih dari satu user,
task, atau CPU.
 Sistem operasi mempunyai 4 tugas
utama :
Mengendalikan akses hardware
Mengendalikan berkas dan folder
Memberikan interface user
Mengendalikan aplikasi
Characteristics of
Operating
Systems
 Control hardware access OS automatically
discovers and configures PnP Plug and Play 
hardware (merupakan suatu
proses/teknologi dimana dapat menginstall
driver untuk komponen tersebut)
 File and folder management
 User interface
Command line interface (CLI)
Graphical user interface (GUI)
 Application management
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL)
DirectX
Tipe Sistem Operasi
• Command Line • Graphical User
Interface Interface
(CLI): User mengetik (GUI): User berinteraksi
command pada prompt. dengan menu dan icon.

Hampir semua OS mempunyai GUI dan CLI.


System Software
Operating systems System utilities
• Fungsi pengendali • Programs that perform
komputer: computer housekeeping
– Hardware tasks:
– Manage system resources
– Memory
– Improve efficiency
– Program Aplikasi
– Virus prevention
– Sistem Perawatan
• Memberikan user
interface

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© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Kategori Sistem Operasi
• Ada 4 kategori:
– Real-Time (RTOS)
– Single-User, Single-Task
– Single-User, Multitask
– Multi-user

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© 2007 Prentice-Hall,
Real-Time Operating Systems
• Systems with a
specific purpose and
a certain result
• Uses include:
– Industrial machines
– Robotic equipment
– Automobiles
– Video game consoles
– Home appliances

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 19


Single-User Operating
Systems
Single-task systems
• Perform one task at a time
Multitask systems
• PDAs: • Perform simultaneous
tasks
– Pocket PC
– Palm OS • Windows
• MS-DOS • MAC OS
• Linux

20
© 2007 Prentice-Hall,
Multi-user Operating
Systems
• Known as network operating systems
• Allow access to the computer system by
more than one user
• Manage user requests
• Systems include:
– UNIX
– Novell Netware
– Windows Server 2003
© 2007 Prentice-Hall,
Inc.
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Desktop Operating
Systems
• Operating system combined with the
processor is known as a platform
– Microsoft Windows / Intel
– Apple Macintosh / Motorola
• Desktop operating systems include:
– Microsoft Windows
– MAC OS
– UNIX
– Linux
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 22
Inc.
Microsoft Windows
• Market leader – 90% market share
Click to view the various Windows systems
First widely
This
Fundamentally
used operating
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Includes
Introduces
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and
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and
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capabilities.
(such as
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features a
Player).
cleaner
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 23
Inc. desktop.
Windows Vista
• Diluncurkan 2006
• Banyak fungsi di belakang layar
• Versi terakhir April 2009
Windows 7
• Dikeluarkan Juli 2009
• Versi terakhir : Oktober 2009
MAC OS
• First operating system with point-and-click
technology (Graphical User Interface)
• Excellent in: MAC OS X

– Graphics display
– Processing capabilities
– System reliability
– Document recovery
• Fewer software applications

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 26
Inc.
UNIX
• Multi-user, multitask operating
system
• Used primarily with mainframes

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 27
Inc.
Linux
• Open-source
operating system
• Based on UNIX
• Stable system
• Free
• May be downloaded
through the Internet

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 28
Inc.
What the Operating System Does
• Provides user
interface
• Manages the CPU
• Manages memory
• Manages hardware
• Coordinates
application software
with the CPU

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 29


The User Interface
• Enables you to interact
with the computer
• Types of interfaces:
Command-line
– Command-driven
interface
– Menu-driven interface
– Graphical user interface Menu-driven

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 30
Inc. Graphical
Processor Management
• Controls the timing of events the
processor works on
– Interrupts
– Interrupt handler
– Interrupt table
– Stack
Process
Operating
Process
3rd
1st
System
4th
2nd
REQUEST

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 31
Inc.
Memory Management
• The operating system allocates space
in RAM for instructions and data

RAM

Operating
System
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 32
Inc.
Virtual Memory
• Instructions and data are stored on
the hard drive when RAM is full
– Swap file
– Paging
– Thrashing
FULL

Operating
System
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 33
Inc.
Hardware Management
• Device drivers:
– Programs that enable the
operating system to
communicate with
peripheral devices
– Provided by the
manufacturer of the
device
• Plug and Play:
– Hardware and software
standard
– Facilitates the
installation of new
hardware
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 34
Software Application
Coordination
• Application programming interfaces
(APIs):
– Blocks of code contained in the operating
system
– Coordinates the operating system with
software applications
• Similar toolbars and menus
– Microsoft Direct X

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 35
Inc.
Starting the Computer
The Boot Process
• Step 1: The basic
input/output system 2
(BIOS) is activated
• Step 2: A Power-on-
self-test (POST) 1
checks attached
hardware 3
• Step 3: The operating
system loads into 4
memory
• Step 4: Configuration
and customization © 2007 Prentice-Hall,
Inc.
settings are checked
36
Handling Errors in the
Boot Process
• Non-system disk or disk
error
– Remove the floppy from the
drive and press any key
• POST errors
– Single beep: Everything is
loading properly
– Series of beeps: Hardware
problem
• Safe mode
– Windows does not boot
properly
– Uninstall any new devices or
software

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 37
Inc.
The Desktop
Click to view
Desktop features
B MY DOCUMENTS
____________ I
Desktop features:TOOLBAR
_________
C MY COMPUTER
____________
Shortcut icons
My Documents
A _______________
SHORT CUT ICONS
Start button
Quick launch
Open programs
OPEN
___________
Taskbar
PROGRAMS
_______
D ____________
START BUTTON System tray _________
TASKBAR ___________
SYSTEM TRAY
F
E QUICKLAUNCH
toolbar
____________ G H
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 38
Inc.
Click to view Start
menu features
Start Menu
____________
USER NAME A

_______________
PINNED ITEMS LIST B

_______________
SPECIAL FOLDERS
G _______________
SYSTEM AREA
MOST FREQUENTLY _______________
HELP
_______________
USED LIST
C

ALL PROGRAMS
___________ D F
BUTTON
SHUT DOWN/RESTART
_______________
USER LOG OFF
_____________ E
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 39
Inc.
Window
Click to view
Window features
__________
TITLE BAR A
__________
MENU BAR B _______________
G SIZING BUTTONS
TOOL BARS
__________ C

F SCROLL BARS
____________

VIEW OPTIONS
______________ D

____________
STATUS BAR E
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 40
Inc.
File Management
• The operating system provides an
organizational structure to the
computer’s contents
• Hierarchical structure of
directories:
– Drives
• Folders
Subfolders
» Files
© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 41
Inc.
Viewing and Sorting
Files and Folders

• Windows Explorer
– Tiles View

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 42


Viewing and Sorting
Files and Folders

• Windows
Explorer
– Thumbnail View

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 43
Inc.
Viewing and Sorting
Files and Folders

• Windows Explorer
– Icon View

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 44


Viewing and Sorting
Files and Folders

• Windows Explorer
– List View

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 45


Viewing and Sorting
Files and Folders

• Windows Explorer
– Detail View
– Sorted and
grouped

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 46


Naming Files
• Filename:
– Name assigned plus
filename extension Bioreport.doc
or
• only characters not
Bio report.doc
legal in filenames are:
\ ⁄ : * ? " < > ¦
• all others are allowed

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 47
Inc.
File Name Extensions
• Filename Extension Type of Document Application

extensions: .doc Word processing


document
Microsoft Word;
Corel Word Perfect
– Used by .xls Workbook Microsoft Excel
programs .ppt PowerPoint Microsoft
presentation PowerPoint
.mdb Database Microsoft Access
.bmp Bitmap image Windows
.zip Compressed file WinZip
.pdf Portable Document Adobe Acrobat
Format
.htm or Web page Hypertext Markup
.html Language

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 48


File path

• File path
– Location of the file

Secondary Filename
folders

C:\My Documents\Tech in Action\TIA Pics\dotmatrix.gif


Drive Primary
folder

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 49


Working with Files
• File management
actions:
– Open
– Copy
– Move
– Rename
– Delete
• Recycle bin
Saving files

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 50


Utility Programs
• Small application programs that perform
special functions:
– Manage system resources
– Create pleasant environment
– Improve efficiency

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 51
Inc.
Display Utilities
• Change the appearance of:
– Desktop
– Windows colors
– Font sizes
– Screen savers
– Screen resolution

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 52
Inc.
Add or Remove Programs
• Installation wizard
• Uninstall wizard:
– Do not delete programs

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 53
Inc.
File Compression Programs
• Reduce the size of a
file:
– Removes
redundancies

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 54


System Maintenance
Utilities
• Disk cleanup
– Cleans unnecessary
files

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 55
Inc.
System Maintenance Utilities

• Disk defragmenter
• ScanDisk:
– Error checker

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 56


System Maintenance Utilities
• Task manager

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 57


System Restore
• System Restore:
– Restores the
system settings
back to a
specific date

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 58
Inc.
System Backup
• Backup:
– Creates a copy of the
hard drive to another
storage device
• Task Scheduler
– Sets a time to run
selected utilities
automatically

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 59


Accessibility Utilities

• Utility manager:
– Magnify screen image
– Screen contents
narration
– On-screen keyboard

© 2007 Prentice-Hall, 60
Inc.