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SURVEYING KONSTRUKSI

GD-4101

JENIS LENGKUNGAN

K02/2009/SHn
• Survey Rekayasa, yg termasuk dalam Geodesi &
Geomatika:
- surveying pemetaan (data utk desain)
- surveying konstruksi (data utk setting-out)
- surveying monitoring (data utk pemantauan)

PEMBANGUNAN PROYEK
REKAYASA
 STUDI KELAYAKAN (Feasibility Study)

 SURVEY PENYULUHAN (Reconnaissance Survey)

 SURVEY PENDAHULUAN (Prelimenary Survey)

 SURVEY LOKASI Survey lokasi ( Location Survey)

 SURVEY KONSTRUKSI (Construction Survey)

 SURVEY AS-BUILT (as-built Survey)

 PEMELIHARAAN (Maintenance)
JALUR JALAN RAYA
JENIS LENGKUNGAN LINGKARAN :

LENGKUNGAN SEDERHANA (SIMPLE CURVE):


BUSUR LINGKARAN YG MENGHUBUNGKAN DUA BUAH TANGEN

LENGKUNGAN PERALIHAN (TRANSITION CURVE):


LENGKUNGAN YG JARI-JARINYA BERUBAH (BERKURANG) DARI JARI-JARI
TAK HINGGA PADA TANGEN SAMPAI KE JARI-JARI LINGKARAN

LENGKUNGAN MAJEMUK (COMPOUND CURVE):


LENGKUNGAN YG TERDIRI DARI DUA BUSUR LINGKARAN ATAU LEBIH
DGN JARI-JARI YG BERBEDA DAN PUSAT LENGKUNGANNYA PADA SISI
ALINEMEN (ALIGNMENT) YG SAMA.

BROKEN-BACK CURVE:
KOMBINASI LENGKUNGAN DGN TANGEN YG PENDEK ( < 100 FEET~ 30,48 m)
YG MENGHUBUNGKAN DUA BUSUR LINGKARAN YG BERPUSAT PADA
SISI YG SAMA.

LENGKUNGAN BOLAK-BALIK (REVERSE CURVE):


DUA BUAH LINGKARAN DGN TANGEN YG SAMA
DAN PUSAT LINGKARAN DI SISI YG BERBEDA.
CONTOH
DESAIN JALAN RAYA

Jalur Lurus

Jalur Lengkung
Lengkungan Horisontal:
Lengkungan Sederhana (simple curve)
 Lingkaran
Busur
Lingkaran
C

C
RC

Bagian Jalur jalan


lurus
Lengkungan Horisontal:
Lengkungan Majemuk (compound curves)
 2 lingkaran dgn 2 R disatukan

Bsr Lingkaran
R1

R2
Bgn Jalur
Jalan Lurus
Lengkungan Horisontal:
Broken Back Curve 
2 lingkaran dihubungkan jalur lurus pendek
(30-40 m)
Bsr
Lingkaran

Jalur Jalan
Lurus
Lengkungan Horisontal:
Lengkungan Bolak-Balik (reverse curves)

Bsr
Lingkaran

Bgn Jalur
Jalan Lurus
LENGKUNGAN PERALIHAN (TRANSITION CURVE)
LENGKUNGAN PERALIHAN =
Lengkungan yg diawali dari jalur lurus hingga
lengkungan lingkaran atau lengkungan yg diawali
dgn R =  s/d R = RC
Lengkungan
Lengkungan
lingkaran
peralihan

R = RC

R=

Jalur lurus
Superelevation W p  F f  Fcp

Rv


Fc
α
F cn
F cp
α e
W 1 ft
Wn Ff

Ff Wp
α

 WV 2  WV 2
W sin   f s W cos   sin    cos 
 gRv  gRv
Superelevation
 WV 2  WV 2
W sin   f s W cos   sin    cos 
 gRv  gRv
V2
tan   f s  1  f s tan  
gRv
V2
e  fs  1  f s e 
gRv

V2
Rv 
g  f s  e
Selection of e and fs
• Practical limits on superelevation (e)
– Climate
– Constructability
– Adjacent land use
• Side friction factor (fs) variations
– Vehicle speed
– Pavement texture
– Tire condition
New Graph

Side Friction Factor

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004


New Table

Minimum Radius Tables


New Table

WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors


For Open Highways and Ramps

from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01


New Graph

WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors

For Low-Speed Urban Managed Access Highways

from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01


New Graph

Design Superelevation Rates - AASHTO

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004


New Graph

Design Superelevation Rates - WSDOT

emax = 8%

from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01


Stopping Sight Distance
SSD
 100 s
SSD  Rv  s 
180 D
180 SSD  Ms
s 
Rv
  90 SSD  Obstruction
M s  Rv 1  cos 
  Rv  Rv

Rv  1  Rv  M s 
SSD  cos   Δs
90   Rv 
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Tambahan lainnya:

• Cross section  Penampang melintang


• Superelevation Transition (perubahan superelevasi)
– Runoff
– Tangent runout
• Spiral curves (lengkungan spiral)
• Extra width for curves ( pelebaran utk lingkaran)
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Cross Section
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Superelevation Transition

from the 2001 Caltrans Highway Design Manual


FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Superelevation Transition

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001


Superelevation Runoff/Runout
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001


FYI – NOT TESTABLE
New Graph

Superelevation Runoff - WSDOT

from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual, M 22-01


FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Spiral Curves

No Spiral

Spiral

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001


FYI – NOT TESTABLE

No Spiral
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Spiral Curves
• WSDOT no longer uses spiral curves
• Involve complex geometry
• Require more surveying
• Are somewhat empirical
• If used, superelevation transition should
occur entirely within spiral
FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Desirable Spiral Lengths

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001


FYI – NOT TESTABLE

Operating vs. Design Speed

85th Percentile Speed


vs. Inferred Design Speed for
138 Rural Two-Lane Highway
Horizontal Curves

85th Percentile Speed


vs. Inferred Design Speed for
Rural Two-Lane Highway Limited
Sight Distance Crest Vertical
Curves
Primary References

• Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).


Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third
Edition. Chapter 3

• American Association of State Highway and Transportation


Officials (AASHTO). (2001). A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.