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CH.

3&4
THE RESEARCH
PROCESS
The Research Process
Steps 1 to 3

• The broad problem area


• Preliminary data gathering
• Problem definition
Broad Problem Area
• Broad problem area refers to the entire situation
where one sees a possible need for research
and problem solving.
• Such issues might pertain to:
– Problems currently existing in an organizational
setting that need to be solved
– Areas that a manager believes need to be improved
in the organization
– A conceptual or theoretical issues that needs to be
tightened up for the basic researcher to understand
certain phenomena
– Some research questions that a basic researcher
wants to answer empirically
Preliminary Data
Collection
• Interviews
• Literature research: the documentation of
a comprehensive review of the published
and unpublished work from secondary
sources of data in the areas of specific
interest to the researcher.
Literature Survey

• The purpose of the literature review :


– To ensure that no important variable that has been in
the past been found repeatedly to have had an
impact on the problem is ignored
– To prevent researcher to “discover” something that
has already been thoroughly researched
– Provide the foundation for developing a
comprehensive theoretical framework from which
hypotheses can be developed for testing
Literature Survey
(Cont’d)
• Extracting the relevant information:
– Detailed information on the problem that was
researched
– The design details of the study (such as
sample size and data collection methods)
– Ultimate findings
Problem Definition

• Problem: many situations where a gap


exists between the actual and the desired
ideal states.
• Problem definition or problem statement:
a clear, precise, and succinct statement of
the question or issue that is to be
investigated with the goal of finding an
answer or solution
Problem Definition
Research Gap
Research Gap
Contribution
Problem Definition

• Problem should :
1) Relevant
2) Feasible
3) Interesting
Research Proposal

1) Purpose of the study


2) Specific problem to be investigated
3) Scope of the study
4) The relevance of the study
5) Research design
6) Time frame
7) Budget
8) Selected bibliography
Conceptual Framework

• Model konseptual yang menjelaskan nalar


logika (logical sense) dari faktor-faktor
yang hendak diteliti
• Hubungan antar variabel yang merupakan
bagian yang integral dari dinamika situasi
yang hendak diteliti
• Dari kerangka konseptual ini, dapat
dibentuk hipotesis yang nantinya dapat
diuji
Conceptual Framework

Process to develop:
1) Definitions of the concepts of variables
in the model
2) Conceptual model that describes the
relationships between the variables in
the model
3) Theory that provide explanation for the
relationships between the variables in
the model
Hypothesis
Development
• Tipe variabel:
– Variabel independen
– Variabel dependen.
– Variabel Moderating
– Variabel Intervening.
• Hipotesis menyatakan hubungan yang diduga
antara dua atau lebih variabel dalam rumusan
proposisi yang dapat diuji secara empiris.
• Hipotesis dapat diturunkan dari telaah teori
maupun riset terdahulu/empiris.
Hypothesis
Development
• Format hipotesis:
1. Pernyataan “jika – maka “
2. Hipotesis nol dan alternatif
3. Hipotesis directional dan non directional
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