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Seminar Biology

SPM
SMK SERI BERA
20 October 2018
Saturday
Presenter
Penyampai
Zulkarnain Jamaluddin
SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan.

#BIOSEMPOIJE
Biodata Penceramah
Nama: Zulkarnain bin Jamaluddin
Umur: 39 tahun
Gred: DG44
Opsyen: Biologi dan Sains
Pengalaman mengajar biologi: 17 tahun
Panel JUJ Pahang: sejak 2014
Terlibat dengan LPM: Sejak 2005
Sejarah Pendidikan:
1986-1991 SK Panching Selatan, Kuantan
1992-1996 SMK Panching Selatan, Kuantan
1997-1998 Pusat Matrikulasi (UKM) Kuala Pilah, N Sembilan
1998-2001 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Ijazah)
Pengalaman Mengajar:
2001-2006: SMK Dato’ Mahmud Mat, Pekan Pahang
2007-2014: SMK Seri Pekan Pahang
2015- Kini: SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan Pahang
Pengalaman Seminar dan Bengkel

1.
2015-2016
SMK Seri Pekan (Seminar dan Bengkel)
2017 .

2. SMK Ahmad, Pekan (Seminar) 1. SMK Bukit Rangin, Kuantan (Kelas PissaA
anjuran Yayasan Pahang)
3. SMK Peramu Jaya, Pekan (Kelas anjuran ECER, UMP)
2. SBPI Kuantan (Kelas PissaA anjuran Yayasan
4. SMK Tengku Abdullah, Pekan (Seminar) Pahang)
5. SMK Nenasi, Pekan (Seminar) 3. SBPI Pekan (Zoom Sekunder/ Tertier)
6. SMK Chini, Pekan (Seminar) 4. SMK Cenderawasih (Seminar)
5. SMK Pandan (Seminar)
7. SMK Muadzam Jaya, Muadzam Shah (Bengkel)
6. SMK Abdul Rahman Talib (SMART), Kuantan.
8. SMKA Pahang, Muadzam Shah(Bengkel) (Seminar dan Bengkel)
9. SemSAS, Kuantan (Kelas PissaA anjuran Yayasan 7. SMK Alor Akar, Kuantan. (Seminar)
Pahang) 8. Methodist Girls Secondary School (MGSS)
10. Maahad Tahfiz, Kuantan (Seminar) Kuantan (Seminar)
11. PPD Bera (Seminar untuk Calon target A 9. PPD Kemaman (Seminar) TATIUC Kijal.
10. PPD Pekan (Seminar dan Bengkel) DHUAM
12. SABS, Kuantan (Seminar)
13. SHAKS, Kuantan (Seminar dan Bengkel)

Biologi Sempoi Je!


1. Sek Agama Men Subang Bestari, Subang Jaya
2. SMA Al-Ma’arif, Bukit Goh Kuantan.
3. SMK Seri Semantan, Mentakab.
4. SeMSAS Kuantan.

2018
5. SMK Alor Akar, Kuantan.
6. SBPI Pekan.
7. Himpunan Pelajar Cemerlang Pekan. (HiPeC)
8. SM Sains Tengku Abdullah (SEMESTA), Raub.
9. SMART Kuantan.
10. SMA Tengku Ampuan Fatimah, Pekan.
11. Yayasan Pahang (PiSSA), Bukit Gambang.
12. SMK Tengku Panglima Perang dan Methodist Girls School, Kuantan.
13. Kem Biologi Daerah Pekan, Chempaka Beach Resort, Kuantan.
14. SMK Seri Bera, Bera.
Penulisan
Modul Sempoi Biologi tingkatan 4 dan 5.
www.iamchampion.blogspot.my
Strategy to Score A+
Paper 1 = 45/50

Paper 2 = 80/100
Paper 3 = 45/50

Total marks = 170/200 (85%)


How to get 80 marks?
10
10
A 10
10
P2 10
15
B
15
Hand out
Seminar Biology
CHAPTER 3: A MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA
MENBRANE
BAB 3: PERGERAKAN BAHAN MERENTAS MEMBRAN PLASMA
Diagram 1 shows a change occurs when a small amount of potassium permanganate crystal is put
into the water.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan suatu perubahan yang berlaku apabila sejumlah kecil hablur kalium
permanganat dimasukkan ke dalam air.
a)(i) Name the process involved in diagram 1.1
Namakan proses yang terlibat dalam Rajah 1.1
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/ markah]
Answer

Simple diffusion/ Diffusion


Jawapan


(ii) How does the process in (a)(i) occur?
Bagaimanakah proses di (a)(i) berlaku?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
Answer
• Crystal dissolve and form a small molecules
• Molecule diffuse from high concentration to low
concentration // follow/ down the concentration.
• Process occur until reached a dynamic equilibrium
• Does not used energy/ ATP
Jawapan
(iii) Table 1 shows several examples of the movement of substances in daily life.
In Table 1, tick (√) the correct examples of the process as named in (a)(i).
Jadual 1 menunjukkan beberapa contoh pergerakan bahan dalam kehidupan seharian.
Dalam jadual 1, tandakan (√) bagi contoh yang betul seperti proses yang dinamakan di (a)(i).
(b) Diagram 1.2 shows two types of food and the preservation
methods.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan dua jenis makanan dan cara pengawetan.
(i) Match the food to the suitable method of preservation.
Padankan makanan itu kepada cara pengawetan yang sesuai.
[2 marks/ markah]
ii) State three importances of preserving the food.
Nyatakan tiga kepentingan mengawet makanan itu.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks/ markah]
ANSWER
• For longer shelf life/ kept longer/ future use
• Can kill microorganisms/ prevent bacterial dan fungal
growth
• Prevent food spoilage
• Easy to carry/ transport
• Inhibit oxidation of food
• Avoid wastage
Jawapan
(c) Diagram 1.3 shows the transport of glucose from proximal convoluted tubule into
the blood capillary in the kidney.
Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan pengangkutan glukosa dari tubul berlingkar proksimal ke
dalam kapilari darah dalam ginjal.
Explain what will happen to the transport of glucose if the structure S is
absent.
Terangkan apa yang akan berlaku kepada pengangkutan glukosa jika
struktur S tiada.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
Answer
• S is mitochondrion.
• Energy will not be generated/ produced.
• Active transport will not occur. No reabsorption of
glucose.
• Glucose remains in the Proximal convoluted
tubule// Transportation of glucose is not occurs//
glucose is not absorbed into the blood capillary.
Chapter 4 Chemical Composition in the Cell
Bab 4 Komposisi Kimia dalam Sel
Cell wall is made up of fibre G. Diagram 3.1 shows fibre G and its monomers.
Dinding sel terbina daripada gentian G. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan gentian G dan
monomernya.
(a) Name fibre G and monomer H.
Namakan gentian G dan monomer H.
G : ……………………………………………………………………………………………
H : …………………………………………………………………………………………….
[2 marks/ markah]
Answer

G: Cellulose / Selulosa
H: Glucose/ Glukosa
b) Explain how fibre G maintains the shape of a plant cell.
Terangkan bagaimana gentian G mengekalkan bentuk suatu sel
tumbuhan.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks/ markah]
Answer
• High tensile strength. Strong/ tough/ rigid
kekuatan regangan yang tinggi/ kuat/ kukuh / tegar
• Can withstand (high turgor) pressure (that develop within it as a
result of osmosis)
boleh menahan tekanan (segah yang tinggi)(yang terhasil akibat
osmosis)
• Prevent from bursting (when in dilute solution)
Menghalang daripada pecah (apabila dalam larutan cair)
• Provide mechanical support
Menyediakan sokongan mekanikal
(c) Protease and lipase are enzymes that are commonly used in baby food
industry.
Explain why enzyme is used in the production of baby food.
Protease dan lipase ialah enzim yang biasanya digunakan dalam industri
makanan bayi.
Terangkan mengapa enzim digunakan dalam penghasilan makanan bayi.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks/ markah]
Answer
• Baby still not able to produce enough enzyme
Bayi masih tidak boleh menghasilkan enzim yang secukupnya
• Protein/ Lipid are large / complex molecules
Protein/ Lipid merupakan molekul bersaiz besar/ kompleks
• (enzyme) break down / hydrolysed / digest
(enzim) menguraikan / menghidrolisis / mencerna
• Food into simpler molecules // predigest food
makanan kepada molekul ringkas // makanan pracerna
• Easier (for baby) to absorb the nutrient / food
Memudahkan (kepada bayi) untuk menyerap nutrien / makanan
(d) An apple contains a lot of pectin. Pectin is a substance which helps to stick plant
cells together. In industry, pectinase is used in the extraction of apple to produce
apple juice industrially. Apple juice which is extracted using pectinase is clear while
homemade apple juice is cloudy.
Epal mempunyai pektin yang banyak. Pektin ialah bahan yang membantu untuk
melekatkan sel- sel tumbuhan bersama. Dalam industri, pektinase digunakan
dalam pengekstrakan buah epal bagi menghasilkan jus buah secara industri. Jus
epal yang diekstrak dengan menggunakan pektinase adalah jernih manakala jus
epal buatan sendiri adalah keruh.
Explain why the enzyme pectinase is used in the fruit juice production.
Terangkan mengapa enzim pektinase digunakan dalam penghasilan jus buah.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks/ markah]
ANSWER
• Pectinase act on pectin // pectin is a substrate to the pectinase
Pectinase bertindak ke atas pektin // pektin ialah substrat kepada
pectinase.
• Pectinase breakdown / hydrolyse/ digest pectin
Pektinase menguraikan/ menghidrolisis / mencerna pektin
• Without pectin, apple cell not stick together
Tanpa pektin, sel jus epal tidak melekat
• Easier / faster to squeeze juice / ectract kuice from the fruit
Lebih mudah/ cepat untuk perah / ekstrak jus daripada buah
• Increase juice yield
Meningkatkan hasil jus
(e) Activation energy is the minimum energy required to start a biochemical
reaction. Diagram 3.2 shows the effect of enzyme on the activation energy of
the biochemical reaction.
Tenaga pengaktifan ialah tenaga minima yang diperlukan untuk memulakan
suatu tindak balas biokimia. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan kesan enzim ke atas
tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas biokimia tersebut.
Based on diagram 3.2, explain how enzyme affects the rate of
biochemical reaction.
Berdasarkan Rajah 3.2, terangkan bagaimana enzim mempengaruhi
kadar tindak balas biokimia.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
ANSWER
• Substrate binds to enzyme to form enzyme-substrate complex
Substrat bergabung dengan enzim untuk membentuk kompleks enzim-
substrat
• To reduced the activation energy // act as (biological) catalyst
Untuk mengurangkan tenaga pengaktifan
• To ease the reaction occur
Untuk memudahkan tindak balas berlaku
• Speed up/ increase the rate of reaction
Mempercepatkan / meningkatkan kadar tindak balas
• Produced product at faster rate
Menghasilkan hasil tindak balas pada kadar yang lebih cepat
Chapter 6 Nutrition
Bab 6 Nutrisi
(a) Diagram 5 shows several eating habits of human.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan beberapa tabiat pemakanan manusia.
Explain how the eating habits affect the human health.
Terangkan bagaimana tabiat pemakanan tersebut mempengaruhi kesihatan
manusia.
[10 marks/ markah]
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Answer
• Gastritis// Gastric// Gastric ulcer
Gastritis // Gastrik // Ulser gastrik
• Gastric juice / acid acting on the epithelial/ lining / (inner) wall of the stomach
Jus gastrik / asid bertindak ke atas lapisan / epitelium / dinding
(dalam) perut
• Epithelial lining / stomach lining / wall damage/ inflamed // corrode the stomach
lining wall
Lapisan epitelium/ lapisan/ dinding perut rosak / radangan // Mengakis lapisan /
dinding perut
• (The damage of the stomach lining / wall) may develop into a hole / ulcer
(Kerosakan lapisan/ dinding perut) boleh berkembang menjadi satu lubang/ ulser
• Obesity
Obesiti
• High food/ fat intake compared to energy expenditure / (body) need
Pengambilan makanan / lemak dibandingkan dengan tenaga yang di perlukan
badan
• Excees body weight // More than 20% of the ideal / normal body weight // High
BMI / Body Mass Index
Berat badan berlebihan // Lebih daripada 20% daripada berta badan ideal / normal
// BMI / Indeks Jisim Badan tinggi
• High (level of) cholesterol in the food / body / blood
(Aras) kolesterol tinggi di dalam makanan / badan / darah
• Predisposed to cardiovascular disease/ problem/ hypertension / diabetes mellitus
Cenderung kepada penyakit/ masalah kardiovaskular / tekanan darah tinggi /
kencing manis
• Anorexia nervosa
Anoreksia nervosa
• Psychological disorder // Any explanation
Gangguan psikologi // Apa- apa penerangan
• Severe / drastic loss in body weight // 15% or more below normal body weight
Kehilangan berat badan / drastic // 15% atau lebih rendah daripada berat badan
normal
• Loss of body fat // muscle reduced
Kehilangan lemak // Otot merosot
• Imbalance / lack mineral ions/ nutrients (in the blood)
Ketidakseimbangan / kurang ion mineral/ nutrient (dalam darah)
• Leads to failure in the function of heart / kidney / endocrine system / reproductive
system / other suitable system / poor health / death // Any example
Mengakibatkan kegagalan fungsi jantung / ginjal / system endokrin / system
pembiakan/ system lain yang sesuai / tidak sihat / kematian // Apa- apa contoh
• Bulimia (nervosa)
• Psychological disorder // Any explanation
(Note: Purging means the attempt to get rid of the food consumed done by
vomiting or taking laxatives)
• Serious injury to the digestive tract / alimentary canal / mouth / teeth
Kecederaan teruk pada salur pencernaan / alimentary / mulut / gigi
• Imbalance / lack mineral ions/ nutrients (in the blood)
Ketidakseimbangan / kurang ion mineral/ nutrient (dalam darah)
• Leads to failure in the function of heart / kidney / endocrine system /
reproductive system / other suitable system / poor health / death // Any
example
Mengakibatkan kegagalan fungsi jantung / ginjal / system endokrin / system
pembiakan/ system lain yang sesuai / tidak sihat / kematian // Apa- apa
contoh
(b) Table 2 shows the nutrient content of a chicken burger and a vegetable
burger.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan kandungan nutrien burger ayam dan burger sayuran.
(i) Based on Table 2, suggest the best burger for the diet of a 16 years old
student.
Berdasarkan Jadual 2, cadangkan burger yang terbaik untuk diet murid
berumur 16 tahun.

(ii) The student consumes the burger everyday for a long period of time.
Discuss the good and the bad effects of the diet on his health.
Pelajar berkenaan mengambil burger itu setiap hari untuk tempoh yang
panjang.
Bincangkan kesan baik dan kesan buruk pemakanan itu ke atas kesihatannya.
[10 marks/ markah]
Chicken burger
Burger ayam

Good effects (Kesan baik)


• Sufficient / more protein // Contains all essential amino acids
Protein mencukupi/ lebih banyak // mengandungi semua asid amino perlu
• Protein need to build new cells / growth
Protein perlu untuk membina sel- sel baru / pertumbuhan
• To synthesis enzyme / hormone / haemoglobin
Untuk sintesis enzim / hormon / hemoglobin
• Sufficient / more / enough carbohydrate
Karbohidrat mencukupi / lebih banyak
• Supply enough energy
Membekalkan tenaga mencukupi
Bad effect (Kesan buruk)

• More fat / cholesterol


Lebih lemak / kolesterol
• Leads to obesity// Any example of cardiovascular disease
Menyebabkan obesity // Apa- apa contoh penyakit kardiovaskular
• More sodium / salt
Lebih natrium / garam
• Leads to the increase in (high) blood pressure / hypertension
Menyebabkan peningkatan tekanan darah (tinggi)/ hipertensi
Bad effect (Kesan buruk)
• Less fibre
Kurang serat
• Less stimulating the peristalsis
Kurang merangsang peristalsis
• Cause constipation
Menyebakan sembelit
• Leads to hemorrhoids / (colon) cancer
Meyebabkan buasir / kanser (kolon)
Vegetable burger
Burger sayuran

Good effect (Kesan baik)


• Sufficient protein
• Protein needs to build new cells / growth
• To synthesis enzyme / hormone / hemoglobin
• Sufficient carbohydrate
• Supply enough energy
• Less fat / cholesterol reduce chance of obesity / cardiovascular disease /
problem
Vegetable burger
Burger sayuran
Good effect (Kesan baik)
• Less fat / cholesterol reduce chance of obesity / cardiovascular
disease / problem
• Sufficient / less sodium / salt
• Maintains the blood pressure / hypertension
• More / enough/ sufficient fibre
• Stimulate peristalsis
• Prevents constipation / hemorrhoids / (colon) cancer
Chapter 7 Respiration
Bab 7 Respirasi
Diagram 6 shows a part of human respiratory system.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan sebahagian sistem respiratori manusia.
(a)(i) Name the tubes T and U.
Namakan salur T dan salur U.
T : ………………………………………………………………………………………………
U : ………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
Answer
T: Trachea
Trakea
U: Bronchus
Bronkus
(iii) Explain a characteristic of T which is related to its function.
Terangkan ciri bagi T yang berkaitan dengan fungsinya.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks/ markah]
Answer
• Has rings of cartilage
• Keep P open (permanently) // to avoid it from collapse (during inhalation) //
support the trachea
• Allow the flow of air (along the passage)
• Continuous / easy / proper breathing
• Has cilia / mucus
• Trap the dust / solid particles
• Prevent / filter (the air / dust)// cleaner air enter the lung
• Avoid lung infections / bronchitis / pneumonia
(b)(i) A heavy smoker is prone to persistent cough.
Seorang perokok tegar mudah mendapat batuk berterusan.

Explain how this habit reduces the efficiency of respiratory system to function.
Terangkan bagaimana tabiat ini mengurangkan kecekapan sistem respirasi
berfungsi.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[3 marks/ markah]
Answer
• The heat from the cigarette smoke increase the temperature of respiratory tract
/ trachea / lungs // Tar form a layer on surface of bronchus / air passage /
alveoli
• Dried up the wall of trachea / air passage / alveoli
• Cilia damaged / destroyed
• The toxin / irritant particle cause inflamed reaction
• Cause (a lot) production of mucus.
• Cause swelling/ narrowing of air passage
• Coughing as a reflex action // to remove mucus / phlegm
• Bronchitis develops
• Emphysema
• The structure of alveolus damaged
• Reduced the surface area
• Less gaseous exchange
(iii) Explain another possible disease which may be suffered by the
heavy smoker.
Terangkan satu penyakit lain yang mungkin dihidapi oleh perokok tegar
tersebut.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• Lung cancer
• Carcinogen in the smoke
• Cause the lungs cell / alveoli become abnormal / mutant / cancer cell
develop
• Bronchitis
• Bronchus tube swollen // diameter / lumen air passage decrease
• Produce more mucus / thick lining of mucus
• Difficulty in getting enough air
• Pneumonia
• (Accumulation of mucus) lead to grow microbe / causes infection
• Any other diseases related to heavy smoking
(c) Give one suggestion on how to increase the ventilation rate during
breathing. Explain your suggestion.
Berikan satu cadangan bagaimana untuk meningkatkan kadar ventilasi
semasa bernafas. Terangkan cadangan anda.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
Suggestion 1
• Take deep breathe// inhale more air (into the lungs)// Exercise
• More supply of oxygen enters the blood // more carbon dioxide exit
the lungs / alveoli // more gaseous exchange

Suggestion 2
• Use inhalant // breathing aids // nasal aids
• Dilate (diameter of) the respiratory tubes
• More supply of oxygen enters the blood // more carbon dioxide exit
the lungs / alveoli // more gaseous exchange
Chapter 9 Endangered Ecosystem
Bab 9 Ekosistem Terancam
a) Diagram 7 show an atmosphere phenomenon.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan satu fenomena atmosfera.
A phenomenon that causes low visibility due the fine suspended particles at the
atmospheric layer closed to the Earth surface.
Discuss the phenomenon based on the following issues:
Satu fenomena yang menyebabkan kadar penglihatan yang rendah disebabkan oleh
zarah – zarah terampai yang halus pada lapisan atmosfera berhampiran dangan
permukaan bumi.
Bincangkan fenomena tersebut berdasarkan isu-isu berikut:
(i) The amount of suspended particles in the air increases
Jumlah zarah- zarah terampai di udara meningkat

(ii) this phenomenon will affect the living organisms


Fenomena ini akan memberi kesan ke atas organisma hidup.
[10 marks/ markah]
(i) The amount of suspended particles in the air increases
• The phenomenon is haze
• Caused by dust/ smoke /smog / soot / solid particles
• The gases such as CO2 / CO / SO2 / NO / is trapped by the particle
• Leads air pollution
• The sources are farming / traffic / industry / quarry / open burning
• Due to human ignorance / lack of knowledge
• (worsen by) still dry air // hot weather / no wind // temperature
increase
• No rain to wash off the suspended particles
(ii) Phenomenon is affecting the living organisms
• Impairs visibility
• Can cause (land and air)(traffic) accident
• Impairs human health
• Such as asthma / cough / difficulty in breathing / lung disease / allergy / pneumonia /
conjunctivitis / eye inflammation / bronchitis
• Leads to anxiety / stress / heart failure / disease
• Covers leaves / clogs stomata in plants
• Reduce light intensity // hinders gaseous exchange
• Rate of photosynthesis/ transpiration/ respiration decrease
• Reduce crop yield
• Cause death of small animals
• Disrupt the food chains / food webs
• Affects the health of livestock
• Decrease in the income of farmers
(b) Diagram 8 shows the current situation of Bukit Cermin.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan situasi semasa di Bukit Cermin.

Diagram 8/ Rajah 8
A developer has proposed to build a hospital and few quarters for the
hospital staff in Bukit Cermin as shown in Diagram 9.
Pemaju telah mencadangkan untuk membina sebuah hospital dan beberapa
buah kuarters bagi kakitangan hospital di Bukit Cermin seperti yang
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 9.
The developer has listed the following steps to ensure the safety of the area.
Pemaju itu telah menyenaraikan langkah- langkah berikut untuk memastikan
keselamatan kawasan itu:

• Build barriers to prevent landslide


Membina penghadang bagi menghalang tanah runtuh
• Build a drainage system
Membina sistem perparitan
The proposal has been rejected by the local authority. The developer plans to
submit a new proposal to the local authority with a few additional safety steps.
Suggest and explain what are the additional safety steps that the developer
should include in the proposal in order to convince the authority.
Cadangan itu telah ditolak oleh pihak berkuasa tempatan. Pemaju itu
kemudiannya merancang untuk menghantar cadangan baharu kepada pihak
berkuasa tempatan dengan beberapa langkah keselamatan tambahan.
Cadang dan terangkan apakah langkah keselamatan tambahan yang perlu
pemaju sertakan dalam kertas cadangan itu bagi meyakinkan pihak berkuasa.
[10 marks/ markah]
• Hospital should be build away from the banks of the hill/ hillside
• To ensure the safety of the building
• Build the road according to the Earth contour / method how to
implement
• Avoid damage to terrain / topography
• Transfer hospital staff quarters to the foot hill
• Avoid deforestation / decrease logging
• To maintain habitat of flora and fauna / biodiversity
• To minimize disruption to the ecosystem
• To maintain water catchment areas
• To prevent flash/ mud flood
• To avoid landslide
• Plant more tree / grass in that area
• On terraced / strategic / high risk ground
• Tree roots grip the soil
• To ensure the stability of hill structure / banks of the hill
• Build an efficient drainage systems for water flow (along the
road)
• To drain the water from the top of the hill (systematically)
• Prevent fast flow of water when raining
• Build strong / firm barrier at high risk area
• To avoid soil erosion
Chapter 10 Transport System
Bab 10 Sistem Pengangkutan
Diagram 10 shows body cells and blood vessels.
Rajah 10 menunjukkan sel badan dan salur darah.
The interstitial fluid is a liquid which bathes the cells in the body.
It acts as a medium for intercellular communication, delivery of
nutrients to the cells and removal of metabolic waste.
Bendalir interstis adalah bendalir yang membasahi sel dalam
badan. Ia bertindak sebagai medium komunikasi antara sel,
penghantaran nutrien kepada sel dan penyingkiran bahan
buangan metabolik.
(a) Based on Diagram 10, name one example of nutrient in the blood
and describe how the nutrient can be delivered to the cells.
Berdasarkan Rajah 10, namakan satu contoh nutrien dalam darah dan
huraikan bagaimana nutrien tersebut dapat dihantar kepada sel.
[4 marks/ markah]
• Glucose / amino acid / any suitable answer
• The heart pushes / pumped the blood flow from artery into blood
capillary
• Diameter of artery is bigger than diameter of blood capillary (vice
versa)
• It creates high hydrostatic pressure
• The blood plasma which contain nutrient is force out to the
intercellular space
• Form interstitial fluid
• Concentration of glucose / amino acid / any suitable answer in the
interstitial fluid is higher than cytoplasm of the cell
• Glucose / amino acid / any suitable answer diffuse into the cell
• By facilitated diffusion / passive transport / simple diffusion
(b) The human circulatory system is responsible for transport of blood,
oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. When the blood flows to a
specific part of the body is reduced, the individual may experience
symptoms of poor blood circulation.
Sistem peredaran darah manusia bertindak untuk mengangkut darah,
oksigen dan nutrien ke seluruh badan. Apabila darah mengalir ke bahagian
badan yang spesifik berkurangan, individu tersebut mungkin mengalami
simptom peredaran darah yang lemah.
Diagram 11 shows blood flow in a normal artery and blood flow in an
artery with plaque.
Explain the cause of poor blood circulation and the effect to the health.
Rajah 11 menunjukkan pengaliran darah dalam arteri yang normal dan
pengaliran darah dalam arteri yang mengandungi plak.
Terangkan sebab peredaran darah yang lemah dan kesan kepada
kesihatan.
[6 marks/ markah]
Causes
• Excessive intake of high cholesterol/ fat
• Plaque build up in the inside of blood vessels /
capillaries
• Due to deposited of cholesterol / fats
• Narrow / clog the artery
• Obstruct / block / reduce the blood flow
Effect
• Less oxygen / nutrients supply to the cell
• Less energy generated
• Numbness // nerve damage // tissue damage
• Tingling
• Varicose veins
• Leg / muscle cramp
• Stinging pain in limbs
(c) Diagram 12 shows two methods on how the baby obtains immunity against
diseases.
Rajah 12 menunjukkan dua kaedah bagaimana bayi memperoleh keimunan
terhadap penyakit.

Method/ Kaedah 1 Method/ Kaedah 2


Compare the immunities obtained by the baby through these two
methods.
Bandingkan keimunan yang diperoleh oleh bayi melalui dua kaedah ini.
[10 marks/ markah]
Similarities
• Both need antibodies
• Antibodies fight the disease / pathogen
Method 1/ Kaedah 1 Method 2 / Kaedah 2
Passive natural immunity Active artificial immunity
Antibody produced by mother Antibody produced by body itself /
immunity system
Last for a short period Last for a longer period
Through mother’s milk / breast Through vaccination
feeding
Mother’s milk intake contain Vaccine intake contain weakened /
antibody / colostrum killed pathogens
Antibody is ready to kill pathogen Pathogen can stimulate
lymphocyte to produce antibody
Method 1/ Kaedah 1 Method 2 / Kaedah 2

Need new antibody to maintain Can be boost when the immunity


immunity level decline/ decrease

Instant immunity Take time to obtain immunity

Save / cheap cost Expensive

Easy available Certain time only / when needed

Does not cause allergy Can cause allergy / side effect


Chapter 11 Locomotion and Support
Bab 11 Pergerakan dan Sokongan
Diagram 13(i) shows the structure of a fish. P, Q and R are the fins of the fish. Diagram
13(ii) shows the cross section across XY.
Rajah 13(i) menunjukkan struktur seekor ikan. P, Q dan R adalah sirip- sirip pada ikan
tersebut. Rajah 13(ii) menunjukkan keratan rentas merentasi XY.
(a)(i) Name fins P and Q.
Namakan sirip P dan sirip Q.
P : ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
Q : ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
[2 marks/ markah]
P: Dorsal fin
Q: Ventral fin/ Anal fin
iii) Explain why fin P is important to the fish when swimming.
Terangkan mengapa sirip P adalah penting bagi ikan semasa berenang.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• To prevent yawing / rolling
• For stability
• Increase the streamline
• To reduce the water resistance
c) Explain how muscle S acts during the movement of the fish.
Terangkan bagaimana otot S bertindak semasa pergerakan ikan itu.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks/ markah]
• Muscle S is myotome
• Antagonistic action // contraction (on one side)
and relaxation (on the other side) // any suitable
explanation related to antagonistic action
• Body bend (in the direction of contraction) // tail
beating / swing
• (repeated action) able to produce thrust force
(d) Fin Q is injured as shown in Diagram 14.
Sirip Q tercedera seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 14.

(i) Explain how does the injury affect the movement of the fish.
Terangkan bagaimana kecederaan itu mempengaruhi pergerakan ikan
tersebut.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• Q is caudal / tail fin
• Beating force decreasing / cannot swing properly
• Not able to produce enough forward thrust
• The movement of the fish is slower
• Fail to steer
• Not able to control the direction in movement /
unstable
(iii) The fish is able to adapt with the injury and survived. Describe how
the fish overcomes the problem while swimming.
Ikan itu dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan kecederaannya dan terus
hidup.
Jelaskan bagaimana ikan itu mengatasi masalah tersebut semasa
berenang.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• The myotomes / muscles contact and relax more /
frequent
• The bending of the body / tail (from left to right) is
more / frequent
• The pectoral fins / pelvic fins propel more / frequent
• To produce more forward thrust
(e) Hot water from a factory is released into the river. Diagram 15
shows the effect of temperature on the concentration of dissolved
oxygen in the river.
Air panas daripada kilang dilepaskan ke dalam sungai. Rajah 15
menunjukkan kesan suhu ke atas kepekatan oksigen terlarut di dalam
air sungai.
Explain how this situation causes the death of fish in this river.
Terangkan bagaimana situasi ini menyebabkan kematian ikan di dalam
sungai.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• (High temperature) lead to thermal pollution
• Temperature increases (River water)
• Less dissolve oxygen (in the water)/the amount
of O2 decrease/ [ ] of O2
• Causes anaerobic condition//BOD increases
• (Respiratory) enzyme denatured
• Rate of respiration/(body)metabolism
decreases/stop//cell die
Chapter 12 Coordination and Response
BAB 12 Koordinasi dan Gerak Balas
Diagram 16 shows the pathway of nerve impulse in a reflex action.
Rajah 16 menunjukkan laluan impuls saraf dalam suatu tindakan refleks.
(a)(i) Explain the transmission of nerve impulse during
reflex action in Diagram 17.
Terangkan penghantaran impuls saraf semasa
tindakan refleks dalam Rajah 17.
[4 marks/ markah]
• Stimulus / heat (from the hot pan) is detected / stimulated / received
by receptor
• The receptor trigger / generate nerve impulses
• The nerve impulses are transmitted / sent along an afferent neurone
to the spinal cord
• In the spinal cord, nerve impulses are transmitted / relay to the
interneurone
• From interneurone, nerve impulses move across the synapse to the
efferent neurone
• Nerve impulse is transmitted along the efferent neurone to the
effector / biceps / muscle
• Muscle contract // the hand is pulled away from the stimulus / hot
pan (immediately)
ii) Based on Diagram 17, compare and contrast
the afferent neurone and efferent neurone.
Berdasarkan Rajah 17, bandingkan dan bezakan
di antara neuron aferen dan neuron eferen.
[10 marks/ markah]
Similarities
• Both are nerve cells
• Both transmit nerve impulse / electrical signal
• Both consist of dendron / dendrite / axon / cell
body
• Both transmitted impulse in one direction
Afferent neurone Efferent neurone

Carry information from receptor Carry information from spinal cord


into spinal cord into the effectors

Cell body located at the side / Cell body located at the terminal
middle of the neurone of the neurone
Cell body located in the ganglion of Cell body located in the grey
spinal cord matter of spinal cord
Have a short axon Have a long axon

Have a long dendron / dendrite Have a short dendron / dendrite


(b) Depressant is given to a patient to relieve the anxieties in everyday
life.
Explain the effect of the drugs on the transmission of impulse through
synapse.
Dadah penenang diberikan kepada seorang pesakit untuk
mengurangkan ketegangan dalam kehidupan seharian.
Terangkan kesan dadah tersebut ke atas penghantaran impuls melalui
sinaps.
[6 marks/ markah]
• Anxiety is caused by drugs abuse / addiction / overactive /
hyperactive CNS activities / emotional disturbance / any
suitable explanation
• Depressant able to slow down the activities of the CNS/
metabolism rate / relaxes muscles / relieves tension / stress
• Examples of depressants are Barbiturates / tranquilizers /
heroin / morphine / any suitable examples
• (in CNS), the drugs / depressant inhibits / stops the
releasing of neurotransmitter
• Inhibits / blocks the binding of neurotransmitter to
the receiving receptors at the next neurone
• Less / no neurotransmitter to trigger / generate new
impulse at the next neurons / interneurone / efferent
neurone
• Causing the next neurone unable to generate impulse
• Slow down the transmission of impulses / activities in
the CNS
• The patient will not feel the stress / tension // feel
calm / relax
CHAPTER 13 Reproduction and Growth
BAB 13 Pembiakan dan Pertumbuhan

Diagram 18(i) shows a part of the female reproductive


system in human. Diagram 18(ii) shows the stages of
the ovarian cycle in the ovary.
Rajah 18(i) menunjukkan sebahagian sistem pembiakan
perempuan pada manusia. Rajah 18(ii) menunjukkan
peringkat kitar ovari dalam ovari.
a) Based on Diagram 18(ii),
Berdasarkan Rajah 18(ii),
(i) Explain the development of structure X to form structure Y.
Terangkan perkembangan struktur X untuk membentuk struktur Y.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• X is primary follicle
• Development of X is stimulated by FSH
• Follicle cells increase// divide by mitosis
• Forming secondary follicle // Y is secondary follicle
• Primary follicle / X contains is primary oocyte
• Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I
• Forming secondary oocyte // Y is contains secondary
oocyte
(ii) Structure Y will develop to form structure Z.
Explain the differences between structure Y and Z.
Struktur Y akan berkembang untuk membentuk struktur Z.
Terangkan perbezaan antara struktur Y dan struktur Z.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks/ markah]
Structure Y Structure Z

Y is a secondary follicle / oocye Z is a corpus luteum

Y is made up of follicle cells Z is remains of follicle cells after


ovulation
Y develops before ovulation Z develops after ovulation

Y contains (secondary) oocyte Z do not contains (secondary) oocyte

Y develops into a Graafian follicle Z will degenerate / regress (if fertilization


do not occur) // Z forms after Graafian
follicle released the oocyte/ ovum
Y secretes oestrogen Z secretes progesterone
(b)(i) The following hormones are involved in ovum formation.
Berikut adalah hormon - hormon yang terlibat dalam pembentukan ovum.

• Luteinising hormone (LH)


Hormon peluteinan
• Follicle-stimulation Hormone (FSH)
Hormon perangsang folikel
• Oestrogen
Estrogen

Describe how the secretion of one hormone controls the secretion of the other
hormones before the ovulation occurs.
Jelaskan bagaimana rembesan satu hormon mengawal perembesan hormon -
hormon yang lain sebelum ovulasi berlaku.
3 marks/ markah]
• Pituitary gland secretes (more) FSH
• FSH stimulates development of follicle
• (growing follicle) secretes oestrogen // more
oestrogen in the blood
• High level of oestrogen stimulates pituitary gland
• Pituitary gland secretes LH // More LH in the
blood
• High level of LH stimulate ovulation
• High level of oestrogen inhibit secretion of FSH
(ii) Contraceptive pills contain oestrogen and progesterone hormone. Explain
the role of progesterone hormone in the prevention of pregnancy.
Pil pencegah kehamilan mengandungi hormon estrogen dan progesteron.
Terangkan peranan hormon progesteron dalam pencegahan kehamilan.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks/ markah]
• High level of progesterone inhibit production of
FSH /LH
• No development of follicle / oocyte // No
ovulation
• No formation of ovum
• No fertilization // no development of zygote //
No implantation of embryo
(c) In certain pregnancies, an injury occurs in the Fallopian tube which will
cause the formation of scar tissue as shown in Diagram 18(i).
Explain how the presence of scar tissue may affect the pregnancy.
Dalam sesetengah kehamilan, suatu kecederaan berlaku dalam tiub Fallopio
yang akan menyebabkan pembentukan tisu parut seperti ditunjukkan dalam
Rajah 18(i).
Terangkan bagaimana kehadiran tisu parut boleh memberi kesan kepada
kehamilan.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/ markah]
• The lumen / diameter of Fallopian tube decrease
/ smaller
• Fertilisation occur to form zygote / morula /
blastocyst / embryo
• Morula / blastocyst / embryo cannot reach the
uterus
• Blastocyst / embryo implant at scar tissue /
Fallopian tube
• Ectopic pregnancy occurs
Thank you.
Terima kasih.