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Produksi Enzim Bromelain

Perusahaan Gunung Sewu:


-Great Giant Pineapple-
Tugas 4 Biokatalisis
Adian Tampubolon
1606884003
Bromelain terbuat dari
seluruh bagian dari
nanas. Setelah
menggunakan
bioteknologi, enzim ini
merupakan 100%
natural plant
proteinase.

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Enzim Bromelain

Bromelain adalah campuran enzim


proteolitik yang berasal dari batang dan jus
nanas.
Enzim ini telah banyak digunakan
dalam industri makanan; untuk pelembut
daging, pemanggangan, dan pencegahan
pencoklatan jus apel.

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Metode Pembuatan Enzim Bromelain
༝ Enzim bromelain terdapat pada seluruh bagian
buah nanas, dan konsentrasi tertinggi dari
enzim bromelain terdapat pada batang buah
nanas.

༝ Metode pembuatan enzim bromelain


melingkupi ekstraksi dan purifikasi dari batang
buah nanas.

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Metode Pembuatan Enzim Bromelain
1. Membrane filtration (Lopes et al. 2009)
2. Reverse Micellar Systems (Upadhyay et al.
2010; Kumar et al. 2011)
3. Aqueous two phase extraction (Coelho et al.
2013; Novaeset al. 2013)
4. Teknik kromatografi (Yin et al. 2011)
5. Presipitasi (Doko et al. 2005; Devakate et al.
2009; Soares et al. 2012).

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Metode Pembuatan Enzim Bromelain
Purification Purification
Types Yield (%) Reference
techniques fold/factor
PEG/K2So4 aqueous
228 4.0 Babu et al. 2008
two-phase system
PEG/poly(acrylic acid)
aqueous two-phase 335.27 25.78 Novaes et al. 2013
system
PEG/(NH₄)₂SO₄
unconventional aqueous - 11.80 Coelho et al. 2013
two-phase system
PEG/MgSo4 aqueous
113.54 2.23 Ketnawa et al. 2010
two phase system
Aqueous two-phase
PEG/MgSo4 aqueous
system 108.45 - Katnawa et al. 2009
two phase system
PEG/MgSo4 aqueous
206 3.44 Ketnawa et al. 2011a
two phase system
Block copolymers
aqueous two phase 79.5 1.25 Rabelo et al. 2004
system
PEG/MgSo4 aqueous
- 25-62 Ferreira et al. 2011
two phase system
Four various aqueous
- - Ketnawa et al. 2011b
two phase system

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Metode Pembuatan Enzim Bromelain
Purification Purification
Types Yield (%) Reference
techniques fold/factor
Microfiltration &
85-100 10 Lopes et al. 2009
ultrafiltration
Microfiltration, ammonium
Filtration
sulfate precipitation, 50 - Doka et al. 2005
ultracentrifugation
Nano-TiO 2, ultrafiltration 64.75 5.3 Chao et al. 2009
Reverse micelle systems 85 4 Chaurasiya et al. 2015
Reverse micelle systems 102 5.2 Hebbar et al. 2008
Reverse micelle systems 97.56 4.54 Hemavathi et al. 2007
Reverse micellar systems Optimized reverse micelle
89.6 2.8 Navapara et al. 2011
systems
Affinity-based reverse
185.6 12.32 Kumar et al. 2011
micelle system
High speed counter-
current chromatography, - - Yin et al. 2011
reverse micelle system
Immobilized metal affinity
94.6 15.4 Nie et al. 2008
membrane
Chromatography
Precipitation, ion
exchange - 3.3 Devakate et al. 2009
chromatography
Cation exchange
- 10 Nadzirah et al. 2013
chromatography

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Reverse micellar system (RMS)
༝ Reverse micellar system
(RMS) adalah teknik
ekstraksi cair-cair yang
baik untuk pemrosesan
hilir biomolekul dari
larutan encer. Selain itu,
RMS telah sangat luas
digunakan untuk separasi
protein.

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Aqueous Two Phase extraction (ATPE)
༝ Teknik ATPE telah terbukti sangat cocok untuk
ekstraksi dan pemurnian protein yang mungkin
terbukti sulit dimurnikan dengan teknik lain yang
ada (Gupta et al., 1999).

༝ Ekstraksi dan pemurnian bromelain dengan


menggunakan polifenol oksidase melalui ATPS dari
nanas menghasilkan 228% hasil, dengan
peningkatan hasil purifikasi sebesar 4 kali lipat
(Babu et al. 2008).

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Aqueous Two Phase extraction (ATPE)

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Kromatografi
Teknik kromatografi dapat menjaga keutuhan struktur
protein murni secara signifikan (Gautam et al. 2010).
Contoh teknik kromatografi yang digunakan dalam
ekstraksi bromelain adalah:
1. Ion exchange chromatography
2. High-speed counter-current chromatography
(HSCCC) (Yin et al. 2011)
3. Affinity chromatography
4. Gel filtration chromatography
5. Capillary electrochromatography
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Filtrasi Membran
Penggunaan mikrofiltrasi dan ultrafiltrasi sebagai
teknologi filtrasi membran, baru-baru ini sangat
populer dalam industri bioseparasi. Metode ini
digunakan untuk memisahkan komponen larutan
berdasarkan perbedaan ukuran molekul.
Ketika bromelain dari batang nanas teradsorpsi pada
nano-TiO2 lalu melewati ultrafilter, tingkat pemurnian
mencapai 5,3 pemurnian aktif sebesar dan 64,7%
dapat dicapai (Chao et al. 2009).

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Aplikasi Enzim Bromelain

Disorders Observed effects References


Change CD4+ to CD8+ T
lymphocyte ratio and Jaber et al. 2002; Secor et al.
Asthma
decreases AAD (Allergic 2008
airway disease).
Retards formation of pro-
Chronic Rhinosinusitis inflammatory prostaglandin Bakhshaee et al. 2014
Anti-Inflammatory agent resulting in fast recovery.
Decreased the occurrence and
Colonic inflammation Darshan; Doreswamy 2004
severity of spontaneous colitis
Reduces in joint tenderness,
Osteoarthritis Klein 2006; Walker et al. 2002
pain and swelling
Rheumatoid arthritis Reduce joint stiffness Maurer 2001
Have high wound healing Baumann et al. 2007; Lemay et
Soft tissue injuries
capacity al. 2004
Decrease tumor size and
Breast cancer Baez et al. 2007
cause apoptosis
Leukemia Causes tumor regression Maurer 2001;Pavan et al. 2012
Bromelain possesses
Lung carcinoma antimetastatic and QIMR 2005
Anti-tumor agent anticoagulant functions
Decrease tumor growth and
Ovarian cancer Maurer 2001
invasive potential
Inhibits nuclear factor-kappab
Melanoma (NF-kb), a protein involved in Kalra et al. 2007
cancer
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Aplikasi Enzim Bromelain

Disorders Observed effects References


Recovers abdominal distention
Postoperative gastrointestinal
and increase water content of Wen et al. 2006
dysmotility (ileus)
fecal pellets
Improves stool release in
Improvement of Constipation Wen et al.2006
patients
Gastrointestinal Tract related
discomforts Exocrine pancreas
Improves digestion Knill-Jones et al. 1970
insufficiency
Neutralizes the effects of
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea intestinal pathogens that Pavan et al. 2012
causes NVD
Bromelain stops aggregation of
Angina pectoris platelets and causes blood Taussig and Nieper 1979
thinning
Inhibition of thrombus Transient ischemic attacks Reduces its severity Taussig and Nieper 1979
formation
Thrombophlebitis Treats thrombophlebitis Kelly 1996
Break down cholesterol
Thrombosis Kelly 1996
plaques
Topical bromelain results in
Burns/Eschar Rosenberg et al.2004
complete debridement
Treatment of Dermatological Wrinkles Conditions skin Reddy et al. 2013
disorders
Pityriasislichenoideschronica Complete clinical recovery Massimiliano et al. 2007
Scleroderma Resolves lesions Gaby 2006

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