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Made by

Ashu kumar
Functions of Human Circulatory System

Includes transport of:


1. oxygen
2. carbon dioxide
3 nutrients
4. water
5. ions
6. hormones
7. antibodies
8. metabolic wastes
The Human Circulatory System

 4 chambered heart
 Arteries
 Capillaries
 Veins
Arteries

 muscular
vessels carrying
blood away from heart

 carry oxygenated blood


Exception- pulmonary artery
(to lungs)
Capillaries

 thin walled (one cell layer) vessels


 arise from arterioles (tiny arteries)
 form capillary beds
 all exchange between blood &
cells occurs here
Veins

 Venules receive blood from the


capillaries
 Low oxygenated blood transferred to
veins
 Veins carry low O2 blood to heart
 Exception- pulmonary vein carries
oxygenated blood
 Thin walled & flattened
 Nearer to body surface than arteries
Circulation Through Human Heart

Body blood enters RIGHT SIDE of HEART


Right atrium ----> right ventricle ---->
Pulmonary artery
----> alveoli in lungs----> oxygenated blood -
-> Pulmonary
Veins ---->

Left Atrium. ----> Left Ventricle ----> blood


leaves through
Aorta (first artery) ---> flows to body
Control of the Heart

1. Extrinsic (outside)

2. Intrinsic (within)
Extrinsic (outside)
control of heart beat
 autonomic nervous system

 adrenal hormone epinephrine

 heart itself can secrete regulatory hormones


when changes in blood pressure in the atria are
detected.
Intrinsic (within) control

 Origin of heart beat


 Sinoatrial (SA) node ( pacemaker)

 May be influenced by autonomic nervous


system
Human Circulatory System
Circuits

1. Hepatic Portal Circuit

2. Renal Circuit

3. Cardiac Circuit

4. Systemic Circuit
Capillaries
 composed of interlocking cells
 one cell thick
 nutrients, ions, water, & oxygen diffuse here
 Blood moves from capillary to a venule, picks up:
• ions
• Water
• carbon dioxide
• metabolic wastes
• nutrients from intestine

Materials leave capillaries by three mechanisms:


1. Diffusion
2. Hydrostatic pressure
3. Pinocytosis
Veins

 Entering blood volume equals that


leaving arteries

 blood pressure is much lower than in


arteries
Movement through veins assisted
by:
1) one way flap-like valves allow blood to
move in one direction (toward heart)

2) some smooth muscle around larger


veins that contracts and moves blood

3) limb and breathing movements literally


massages veins and squeezes blood
along
Arterioles and Capillaries

Figure 8.2
Capillary Structure

Figure 8.4
Lymphatic System

 Function: maintain blood volume; also functions in immune system

 Structure
 Blind-ended capillaries
 Lymphatic vessels
 Lymph
The Heart

Figure 8.8
The Heart
 Structure
 Layers; epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
 Chambers: two atrias, two ventricles
 Valves
 Two atrioventricular valves: tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)
 Two semilunar valves: pulmonary and aortic
Pulmonary Circuit: Oxygenation
of Blood
 Deoxygenated blood through the vena
cava to the right atrium
 Deoxygenated blood through the right
atrioventricular valve to the right ventricle
 Deoxygenated blood through the
pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary
trunk and the lungs
 Oxygenated blood through the pulmonary
veins to the left atrium
 Oxygenated blood through the left
atrioventricular valve to the left ventricle
Systemic Circuit: Delivery of
Oxygenated Blood to Tissues and
Return of Blood to the Heart
 Oxygenated blood through the aortic
semilunar valve to the aorta
 Oxygenated blood through branching
arteries and arterioles to the tissues
 Oxygenated blood through the arterioles to
capillaries
 Deoxygenated blood from capillaries into
venules and veins
 Ultimately to the vena cava and into the
right atrium
Cardiac Cycle

Figure 8.12
Heart Sounds and Heart Valves

 Lub-dub

 Heart murmurs
Cardiac Conduction System
Coordinates Contraction
 SA node: cardiac
pacemaker

 AV node: relay impulse

 AV bundle and Purkinje


fibers: carry impulse to
ventricles

Figure 8.14
Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)

 Three formations
 P wave: impulse across atria
 QRS complex: spread of impulse down septum, around
ventricles in Purkinje fibers
 T wave: end of electrical activity in ventricles

 Arrythmias, ventricular fibrillation


Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)
(cont.)

Figure 8.15B, C
Blood Pressure

 Definitions: “normal”
 Systolic pressure

 Diastolic pressure
 Measurement: sphygmomanometer
Blood Pressure

 Hypertension: high blood pressure


 Definition
 The silent killer
 Risk factors
 Hypertension: blood pressure too low
 Clinical signs: dizziness, fainting

 Causes: orthostatic, severe burns, blood loss


Regulation of the
Cardiovascular System:
Baroreceptors
 Baroreceptors: pressure receptors in aorta and
carotid arteries
 Steps in mechanism
 Blood pressure rises, vessels stretched
 Signals sent to brain in the cardiovascular
center
 Heart signaled to lower heart rate and force
of contraction
 Arterioles vasodilate, increasing blood flow
to tissues
 Combined effect lowers blood pressure
Regulation of the
Cardiovascular System: Nervous
and Endocrine Factors
 Medulla oblongata signals
 Sympathetic nerves: constrict blood vessels, raising blood
pressure
 Parasympathetic nerves: dilate blood vessels, lowering blood
pressure
 Hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline)
 Local requirements dictate local blood flow
Cardiovascular Disorders

 Angina pectoris: A warning


 Myocardial infarction/heart attack: permanent cardiac damage
 Congestive heart failure: decrease in pumping efficiency
 Embolism: blockage of blood vessels
 Stroke: impaired blood flow to the brain
Reducing the Risk of
Cardiovascular Disease
 Smoking: Don’t
 Blood lipids: monitor cholesterol levels
 Exercise: regular and moderate
 Blood pressure: treat hypertension
 Weight:being overweight increases risk of
heart attack and stroke
 Controlof Diabetes Mellitus: early
diagnosis and treatment delays onset of
related problems
Blood

 Connective tissue
• plasma matrix + 3 types cells

Plasma = 90% water + 10% plasma solids.


Solids include:
urea
amino acids
glucose
hormones
ions
fats
proteins
The 3 Major Blood Proteins

albumins - large proteins that bind impurities


&
some toxins, aid in transport of
hormones, fatty acids and ions,
help
maintain osmotic balance.

globins - include antibodies


(immunoglobins)

fibrinogen - important in blood clotting


Blood Cells

A) Erythrocytes

B) Leukocytes

C) Platelets
Erythrocytes (red blood
cells)
1. small, disk-like shape
2. no nucleus
3. cannot reproduce
4. last 4 months then rupture
5. produced by red bone
marrow
6. contain hemoglobin
7. carry oxygen
Leukocytes (white blood cells)

 Nucleus present

 Active in immune system


• most are neutrophils that engulf
microorganisms
• Basophils
• Eosinophils
• lymphocytes
Platelets (thrombocytes)

 tiny
 numerous
 cell fragments
 aid blood
clotting
Circulatory system + lymphatic system =
Proper Osmotic Conditions
Three Fluid Regions Of
Body

1) fluid of blood and lymph


2) interstitial fluid - watery fluid between and
among cells
3) intracellular fluid