chapter 1 signals and amplifiers

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chapter 1 signals and amplifiers

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Amplifiers

from Microelectronic Circuits Text

by Sedra and Smith

Oxford Publishing

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Introduction

That electronic circuits process signals, and thus

understanding electrical signals is essential to

appreciating the material in this book.

The Thevenin and Norton representations of signal

sources.

The representation of a signal as sum of sine waves.

The analog and digital representations of a signal.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Introduction

The most basic and pervasive signal-processing

function: signal amplification, and correspondingly,

the signal amplifier.

How amplifiers are characterized (modeled) as circuit

building blocks independent of their internal circuitry.

How the frequency response of an amplifier is

measured, and how it is calculated, especially in the

simple but common case of a single-time-constant

(STC) type response.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.1. Signals

e.g. voice of radio announcer reading the news

process – an operation which allows an observer to

understand this information from a signal

generally done electrically

transducer – device which converts signal from non-

electrical to electrical form

e.g. microphone (sound to electrical)

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.1: Signals

A: thevenin form – voltage source vs(t) with series

resistance RS

preferable when RS is low

A: norton form – current source is(t) with parallel

resistance RS

preferable when RS is high

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.1. Signals

Thévenin

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra form;

and Kenneth C. Smith (b) the Norton form.

(0195323033)

Example 1.1:

Thevenin and Norton

Equivalent Sources

note that output resistance of a source limits its

ability to deliver a signal at full strength

Q(a): what is the relationship between the source and

output when maximum power is delivered?

for example, vs < vo??? vs > vo??? vs = vo???

Q(b): what are ideal values of RS for norton and thevenin

representations?

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.2. Frequency

Spectrum of Signals

in terms of the strength of harmonic components

Q: What is a Fourier Series?

A: An expression of a periodic function as the sum

of an infinite number of sinusoids whose

frequencies are harmonically related

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

What is a Fourier

Series?

(possibly infinite) sum of simpler oscillating functions

a0

f( x )

2

a cos(kx) b sin(kx)

k 1

k k

1

ak f(x)cos(kx)dx , n0

1

bk f(x)sin(kx)dx , n1

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

What is a Fourier

Series? (2)

wave below?

A: See upcoming slides…

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Fourier Series

Example

note that the piece-wise square wave must be divided in two dc functions

Va

0

Va

ak

cos(kx)dx cos(kx)dx 0 0

0

1 1

sin kx sin kx

k k 0

1 1 1 1

sin k 0 sin k sin k sin k 0

k k k k

0 0 0 0

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Fourier Series

Example

Va

0

Va

bk

V sin(kx)dx sin(kx)dx

a

0

0

1 1

cos kx cos kx

k k 0

1 1 1 1

cos k 0 cos k cos k cos k 0

k k k k

1 1 1 1

(-1)k (-1)k

k k k k

4Va

k is odd

bk k

k is even 0

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Fourier Series this series may be truncated

because the magnitude of each

Example terms decreases with k…

0

0 4Va

k

a0

f(x) ak cos(kx) bk sin(kx)

2 k 1

1

4Va k is odd sin(k0t )

f( x )

k 1 k is even

k x 0t

0

4Va 1 1

f( x ) sin( t ) sin(3 t ) sin(5 t )

0

3

0

Oxford University Publishing

5

0

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Fourier Series

Example

lineOxford

spectrum)

University Publishingof the periodic square wave of Fig. 1.5.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.2. Frequency

Spectrum of Signals

va (t ) Va sin(t )

Va amplitude in volts

angular frequency in rad/sec

= phase shift in rad

t time in sec

sine wave amplitude / square root of two

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.2. Frequency

Spectrum of Signals

periodic function of time?

A: Yes, however (as opposed to a discrete frequency

spectrum) it will yield a continuous…

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.3. Analog and

Digital Signals

and time

discrete-time signal – is continuous with respect to

value but sampled at discrete points in time

digital signal – is quantized (applied to values) as well as

sampled at discrete points in time

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Figure 1.9 Block-diagram representation of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

18

1.3. Analog and

Digital Signals

analog signal

discrete-time signal

digital signal

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.3. Analog and

Digital Signals

sampling

quantization

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.3. Analog and

Digital Signals

synonymous?

digital

A: No. The binary number

system (base2) is one way to

represent digital signals.

base 10 base 2

digital and

y b0 2 b1 2 b2 2

0 1 2

binary LSB

b3 23 bn1 2n1

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

MSB

1.4. Amplifiers

A: Because many transducers yield output at low

power levels (mW)

linearity – is property of an amplifier which ensures a

signal is not “altered” from amplification

distortion – is any unintended change in output

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.1. Signal

Amplification

increased resolution.

power amplifier – is used to boost current levels for

increased “intensity”.

output / input relationship for amplifier

vo (t) Av vi (t)

voltage gain

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.2. Amplifier

Circuit Symbol

Figure 1.11: (a) Circuit symbol for amplifier. (b) An amplifier with

a common terminal (ground) between the input and output

ports.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.4. Power and

Current Gain

and transformer? …Because both alter voltage levels.

A: Amplifier may be used to boost power delivery.

power gain (Ap )

input power (PI ) vi ii

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.5. Expressing

Gain in Decibels

current gain in decibels 20 log Ai dB

power gain in decibels 10 log(Ap )dB

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.6. Amplifier

Power Supply

VCC is positive, current ICC is drawn

VEE is negative, current IEE is drawn

power draw – from these supplies is defined below

Pdc = VCC ICC + VEE IEE

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.6. Amplifier

Power Supply

plus that drawn from supply (Pdc) is equal to output (PL)

plus that which is dissipated (Pdis).

Pi + Pdc = PL + Pdissapated

efficiency – is the ratio of power output to input.

efficiency = PL / (Pi + Pdc)

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.4.6. Amplifier

Power Supply

batteries)

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)for operation.

1.4.7. Amplifier

Saturation

is linear over a limited input range.

saturation – beyond this range, saturation occurs.

output remains constant as input varies

Lminus Lplus

vi

Av Av

or...

Lminus vo Lplus

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5. Circuit Models

for Amplifiers

amplifier) terminal behavior

neglecting internal operation / transistor design

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.1. Voltage

Amplifiers

Ri RL

input voltage vi (v s ) output voltage vo (Avovi )

R Rs

source i

R Ro

open-ckt L

volt. output

source and

input voltage output and

load

resistances resistances

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.1. Voltage

Amplifiers

previous slide?

A: Model which is function of: vs, Avo, Ri, Rs, Ro, RL

R RL Ri RL

vo Avo (v s ) i

Avov s

source Ri Rs RL Ro Ri Rs RL Ro

volt.

source and output and

input load

resistances resistances

open-ckt

Oxford University output voltage

Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.1. Voltage

Amplifiers

A: Gain (ratio of vo and vs) is not constant, and

dependent on input and load resistance.

R RL Ri RL

vo Avo (v s ) i

Avov s

source Ri Rs RL Ro Ri Rs RL Ro

volt.

source and output and

input load

resistances resistances

amplifier model neglects this nonlinearity.

output voltage

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.1. Voltage

Amplifiers

It is assumed that Ro << RL…

It is assumed that Ri << Rs…

non-ideal model

ideal model

impedance,

Oxford University Publishing low output impedance

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.1. Voltage

Amplifiers

It is assumed that Ro << RL…

It is assumed that Ri << Rs…

Ri RL

vo Avovs Avovs

Ri Rs RL Ro ideal

model

non-ideal model

resistance RS Publishing

Oxford University and load resistance RL have no effect on gain

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.2. Cascaded

Amplifiers

infinite input impedance or zero output impedance.

Cascading of amplifiers, however, may be used to

emphasize desirable characteristics.

first amplifier – high Ri, medium Ro

last amplifier – medium Ri, low Ro

aggregate – high Ri, low Ro

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.3:

Cascaded Amplifier

Configurations

Q(a): What is overall voltage gain?

Q(b): What is overall current gain?

Q(c): What is overall power gain?

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.3:

Cascaded Amplifier

Configurations

aggregate amplifier

with gain

vL

Av

vs ii Rs

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.3. Other

Amplifier Types

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.3. Other

Amplifier Types

v0 Ri i0 Ri 0

Av 0 with Av 0 with

vi i0 0

Ro 0 ii v0 0

Ro

i0 Ri v0 Ri 0

Gm with Rm with

vi v 0

Ro

Oxford University Publishing

ii i0 0

Ro 0

Microelectronic Circuits 0by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.4. Relationship

Between Four Amp

Models

any of the four may be used to model any amplifier

they are related through Avo (open circuit gain)

current

to voltage transres.

amplifier transcond. to voltage

to voltage amplifier

amplifier

Ro Rm

Avo Ais GmRo

Ri Ri

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.5. Determining

Ri and Ro

behavior?

A: Observe vi and ii, calculate via Ri = vi / ii

Q: How can one calculate output resistance from

terminal behavior?

A:

Remove source voltage (such that vi = ii = 0)

Apply voltage to output (vx)

Measure negative output current (-io)

Calculate via Ro = -vx / io

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Section 1.5.5:

Determining Ri and Ro

answer: observe vi and ii, calculate via Ri = vi / ii

question: how can we calculate output resistance from terminal behavior?

answer:

remove source voltage (such that vi = ii = 0)

apply voltage to output (vx)

measure negative output current (-io)

calculate via Ro = -vx / io

resistance.

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.5.6. Unilateral

Models

input to output (not reverse)

However, most practical amplifiers will exhibit some

reverse transmission…

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.4:

Common-Emitter

Circuit

three-terminal device

when powered up with dc source and operated with

small signals, may be modeled by linear circuit below.

C

E

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

input resistance (r)

base Example 1.4. collector

output resistance (ro)

examine:

bipolar junction transistor (BJT):

three-terminal device

when powered up with dc source and operated with small signals, may

be modeled by linear circuit below.

circuit model for a bipolar

conductance junction transistor (BJT)

(gm) Oxford University Publishing

emitter

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.4:

Common-Emitter

Circuit

common-emitter circuit with:

Rs = 5kohm

r = 2.5kohm

gm = 40mA/V

ro = 100kohm

RL = 5kohm

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

input and output share common terminal

source load

the emitter as a common terminal between input and

Microelectronic Circuits by output

Adel S. Sedra and(called

Kenneth C. Smitha common-emitter amplifier).

Oxford University Publishing

(0195323033)

1.6.1. Measuring the

Amplifier Frequency

Response

A: By applying sine-wave input of amplitude Vi and

frequency .

Q: Why?

A: Because, although its amplitude and phase may

change, its shape and frequency will not.

this characteristic of sine wave applied to linear circuit is

unique

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.1: Measuring the

Amplifier Frequency

Response

input and output are similar for linear

amplifier

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.1. Measuring the

Amplifier Frequency

Response

output relationship of an amplifier – or other device –

with respect to various parameters, including

frequency of input applied.

It is a complex value, often defined in terms of

magnitude and phase shift.

Vo

T() and T()

Vi phase shift

magnitude gain

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.2. Amplifier

Bandwidth

A: The range of frequencies over which its

magnitude response is constant (within 3dB).

Q: For an amplifier, what is main bandwidth concern?

A: That the bandwidth extends beyond range of

frequencies it is expected to amplify.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.2. Amplifier

Bandwidth

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.4. Single Time-

Constant Networks

(or may be reduced to) one reactive component and

one resistance.

low pass filter – attenuates output at high

frequencies, allow low to pass

high pass filter – attenuates output at low

frequencies, allow high to pass

time constant (t.) – describes the length of time

required for a network transient to settle from step

change (t = L / R = RC)

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.4. Single Time-

Constant Networks

attenuates Two examples of sSTC

at high

networks: (a) a low-pass network

high pass filter (right) and (b) a high-pass network.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.4. Single Time- 1

vo Zo jC 1

Constant Networks

low-pass: k

vi Z i Z o R 1

jC

vo Zo R

high-pass: k

vi Z i Z o R 1

jC

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.4. Single Time-

Figure 1.2 : Characteristics of Various STC

Constant Networks

low - pass high - pass

K Ks

transfer function

1 ( s / 0 ) 1 0

transfer function K K

(for physical freq.) 1 j( / 0 ) 1 j(0 / )

K K

magnitude response

1 j( / 0 )2 1 j(0 / )2

phase response tan( / 0 ) tan(0 / )

transmission at 0 K 0

transmission at 0 K

1

3db Frequency 0 same

t

Bode Plots refer to next slide

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Figure: Low-Pass Filter Magnitude (top-left) and Phase

(top-right) Responses as well as High-Pass Filter (bottom-

left) and Phase (bottom-right) Responses

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

-20dB/decade drop, beginning -45 degrees/decade drop,

from maximum gain at corner moving outward from -45

Figure: Low-Filter Magnitude degree

frequency (top-left) andatPhase

shift corner(top-

frequency

right) Responses as well as High-Pass Filter (bottom-left)

and Phase (bottom-right) Responses

+20dB/decade incline, until -45 degrees/decade drop,

maximum gain is reached at moving outward from +45

corner frequency degree shift at corner frequency

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.5:

Voltage Amplifier

input resistance (Ri)

input capacitance (Ci)

gain factor (m)

output resistance (Ro)

Q(a): Derive an expression for the amplifier voltage gain

Vo / Vs as a function of frequency. From this, find

expressions for the dc gain and 3dB frequency.

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.5:

Voltage Amplifier

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Example 1.5:

Voltage Amplifier

calculated?

A: Gain = 0dB

A: It is known that the gain of a low-pass filter drops

at 20dB per decade beginning at 0. Therefore unity

gain will occur two decades past 0 (40dB – 20dB –

20dB).

Q(c): Find vo(t) for each of the following input: vs =

0.1sin(102t), vs = 0.1sin(105t)

Oxford University Publishing

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.5. Classification of

Amps Based on

Frequency Response

frequencies

like those seen in previous example

coupling capacitors – cause the falloff of gain at low

frequencies

are placed in between amplifier stages

generally chosen to be large

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

1.6.5. Classification of

Amps Based on

Frequency Response

frequencies

capacitively coupled amplifiers – allow passage of high

frequencies

tuned amplifiers – allow passage of a “band” of

frequencies

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion

form (a voltage source vs in series with source resistance Rs) or the

Norton form (a current source is in parallel with resistance Rs).

The Thevenin voltage vs is the open-circuit voltage between the

source terminals. The Norton current is is equal to the short-

circuit current between the source terminals. For the two

representations to be equivalent, vs and Rsis must be equal.

A signal can be represented either by its waveform vs time or as

the sum of sinusoids. The latter representation is known as the

frequency spectrum of the signal.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion (2)

(or rms value which is the peak / 21/2), frequency ( in rad/s of f in

Hz; = 2f and f = 1/T, where T is the period is seconds), and

phase with respect to an arbitrary reference time.

Analog signals have magnitudes that can assume any value.

Electronic circuits that process analog signals are called analog

circuits. Sampling the magnitude of an analog signal at discrete

instants of time and representing each signal sample by a number

results in a digital signal. Digital signals are processed by digital

circuits.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion (3)

The simplest digital signals are obtained when the binary number

system is used. An individual digital signal then assumes one of

only two possible values: low and high (e.g. 0V and 5V)

corresponding to logic 0 and logic 1.

An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) provides at its output the

digits of the binary number representing the analog signal sample

applied to its input. The output digital signal can then be

processed using digital circuits.

A transfer characteristic, vo vs. vi, of a linear amplifier is a straight

line with a slope equal to the voltage gain.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion (4)

supplies for their operation.

The amplifier voltage gain can be expressed as a ratio Av in V/V or

in decibels, 20log|Av| in dB.

Depending on the signal to be amplified (voltage or current) and

on the desired form of output signal (voltage or current) there are

four basic amplifier types: voltage, current, transconductance, and

transresistance. A given amplifier may be modeled by any of

these configurations, in which case their parameters are related

by (1.14) through (1.16) in the text.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion (5)

through a linear circuit. Sinusoidal signals are used to measure

the frequency response of amplifiers.

The transfer function T(s) = Vo(s)/Vi(s) of a voltage amplifier may

be determined from circuit analysis. Substituting s = j gives T(j)

whose magnitude (|T(j)| is the magnitude response and () is

the phase response.

Amplifiers are classified according to the shape of their frequency

response.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

Conclusion (6)

composed of, or may be reduced to, one reactive component (L

or C) and one resistance. The time constant (t) is L/R or RC.

STC networks can be classified into two categories: low-pass (LP)

and high-pass (HP). LP network pass dc and low-frequencies

while attenuating high-frequencies. The opposite is true for HP.

The gain of an LP (HP) STC circuit drops by 3dB below the zero-

frequency (infinite-frequency) value at a frequency 0 = 1/t. At

high-frequencies (low-frequencies) the gain falls of at a rate of

6dB/octave or 20dB/decade.

Refer to Table 1.2. on page 34 and Figs. 1.23 and 1.24. Further details are

provided

Oxfordin Appendix

University Publishing E.

Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)

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