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Homeostasis

Bina Nusantara University 1


KONSEP HOMEOSTASIS

Homeostasis → kecenderungan untuk menstabilkan


keadaan tubuh yang normal (lingkungan internal)
atau mempertahankan kondisi fisik dan kimia yang
relatif konstan dalam lingkungan internal organisme,
menurut batas-batas fisiologis.

Homeostasis sebagai keadaan stabil-dinamis dengan


perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi diperkecil oleh
respons fisiologis kompensatorik.
Komponen Mekanisme Homeostatik :
a. Set point, nilai fisiologis normal dari masing-
masing variabel tubuh.
b. Reseptor.
c. Pusat Pengendali.
d. Efektor.
Faktor-faktor internal yang harus dipertahankan
secara homeostasis :
1. Konsentrasi molekul zat-zat gizi.
2. Konsentrasi O2 dan CO2.
3. Konsentrasi zat-zat sisa.
4. pH.
5. Konsentrasi air, garam-garam dan elektrolit-elektrolit.
6. Suhu.
7. Volume dan tekanan.
Hubungan Interdependen Sel, Sistem Tubuh, dan Homesostasis

mempertahankan
Sistem Tubuh Homeostasis

Penting
Untuk
membentuk Kelangsungan
hidup

Sel
Silverthorn, Human Physiology
An Integrated Approach, 4th
ed
What will happen if there were no homeostasis/ why is homeostasis important?
• Body temperature (heat denature protein, cold destroys membranes)
• Water balance (water would collect in our cells, or we would shrink up)
• Ion balance (Na+, K+ pumps wouldn’t work, nervous system won’t work, heart will
stop)
• Blood glucose (too low faint, brain ceases to work, too high long term leads to
vessel damage)
• O2/CO2 levels (no O2 -cells dies, too much CO2 toxic, leads to acidosis, change in
pH - death)

Effects of temperature, pH/ion conc and toxic substances on enzyme activity and cell
function.

(denature protein, cells become leaky, enzymes cannot work properly, leads to
eventual cell death)
Sistem kontrol untuk mempertahankan homeostasis :
kontrol intrinsik dan ekstrinsik

Kontrol intrinsik (Local control)


Respons paracrine dan autocrine.

Kontrol ekstrinsik
oleh sistem saraf dan endokrin
→ Jarak jauh
Terutama melalui sistem umpan bailk negatif
→ terjadi jika suatu perubahan pada sebuah variabel terkontrol mencetuskan
respons yang melawan perubahan itu, sehingga variabel bergerak dengan
arah berlawanan dengan perubahan awal

Umpan balik positif → lebih jarang terjadi


Hole, Human Anatomy 7 Physiology, 10th ed
Silverthorn, Human Physiology An
Integrated Approach, 4th ed
Silverthorn, Human Physiology
An Integrated Approach, 4th
ed
Silverthorn, Human Physiology An Integrated
Approach, 4th ed
Silverthorn, Human Physiology
An Integrated Approach, 4th
ed
Silverthorn, Human Physiology
An Integrated Approach, 4th
ed
Positive
Feedback
Feedback in Coagulation

Positive feedback “mini-loops” are built into pathway to speed up


production of chemicals needed to form the clot. Entire sequence of
clotting is a negative feedback pathway:
Harmful Effects of Positive Feedback
Positive feedback can be harmful. Two specific examples of
these harmful outcomes would be:
1. Fever can cause a positive feedback within homeostasis
that pushes the body temperature continually higher. If
the temperature reaches 45 degrees centigrade (113
degrees Fahrenheit) cellular proteins denature bringing
metabolism to a stop and death.
2. Chronic hypertension can favor the process of
atherosclerosis which causes the openings of blood
vessels to narrow. This, in turn, will intensify the
hypertension bring on more damage to the walls of blood
vessels.
Negative feedback

Set point
“Too hot!”

Set point
Heater turned off
Temperature drops

Control center: Set point


thermostat
“Too cold!”

Heater turned on

Temperature rises
Negative feedback
Kontrol Umpan Balik Negatif pada tekanan darah

+ = merangsang Penurunan tekanan


atau mengaktifkan darah di bawah titik normal
- = menghambat
atau mematikan
+
- Sel-sel saraf pematau
tekanan

Penurunan tekanan
darah di bawah (Melalui jalur
titik normal saraf)

Jantung dan +
Pembuluh darah
Silverthorn, Human Physiology
An Integrated Approach, 4th
ed