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PSIKOTERAPI KENABIAN

Pengertian

 Psikoterapi Kenabian : ilmu yg


membahas tentang proses
penyembuhan atau proses penyehatan
gangguan mental dan spiritual yg
dilakukan oleh para nabi/rasul,
khususnya Nabi Muhammad SAW dan
ahli waris mereka (auliya) yg bersumber
kepada Al Qur’an, As Sunnah dan
Ijtihad para ahli.
OBJEK PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN :
 Penyimpangan-penyimpangan sikap
dan perilaku yang dapat
membahayakan eksistensi diri, baik
antara diri dengan dirinya sendiri, orang
lain, lingkungan maupun antara dirinya
dg Tuhannya.
PENGERTIAN GANGGUAN
MENTAL
 Penyimpangan-penyimpangan yang
bersifat kejiwaan seperti : sikap, pola
pikir dan perilaku yang negatif dan
destruktif.
 Keadaan tsb akan dapat
membahayakan diri sendiri dan orang
lain atau lingkungannya.
PENGERTIAN GANGGUAN
SPIRITUAL
 Penyimpangan-penyimpangan yang
bersifat ruhaniyah atau keyakinan.
 Penyekutuan (syirik)
 Pengingkaran (kufur)
 Inkonsistensi (nifaq)
 Pengabaian (fasiq).
ALAT UKUR GEJALA MENTAL
DAN SPIRITUAL
 Alat pengukur gejala-gejala jiwa
(mental) adalah ilmu Akhlak, sedangkan
gejala-gejala ruhaniyah (spiritual)
adalah ilmu Tauhid atau ilmu Akidah.
 Kedua ilmu tersebut bersumber dari
Ketuhanan (Al Qur’an) dan Kenabian
(As Sunnah).
FUNGSI PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN (1)
1. Sumber pengetahuan tentang proses
terapi kenabian yang telah dilakukan
oleh para nabi/rasul secara umum dan
Nabi Muhammad SAW secara khusus
terhadap gejala gangguan mental dan
spiritual yang bersumber dari ajaran
Ketuhanan (Al Qur’an) dan Kenabian
(As Sunnah).
FUNGSI PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN (2)
 2. Memberikan pemahaman praktis
kepada para ilmuwan muslim yang
konsen kepada masalah kejiwaan,
agar lebih menyempurnakan ilmu dan
pengetahuannya tentang hakikat
manusia dan problematikanya.
FUNGSI PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN (3)
 3. Memberikan pemahaman yang
praktis tentang cara/proses
penyehatan atau penyembuhan
gangguan mental dan spiritual secara
baik dan benar dengan konsep
Ketuhanan yang telah dilakukan oleh
para nabi dan ahli waris mereka.
TUJUAN PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN :
 1. Mengantarkan individu atau kelompok
kepada sehat secara mental (psikologis),
agar dapat bersikap, berpikir dan berperilaku
dengan baik dan benar menurut ajaran Islam.
 2. Mengantarkan individu atau kelompok
kepada sehat secara spiritual (ruhani) agar
dpt beriman dan bertaqwa kpd Tuhannya dg
melakukan ketaatan dlm melaksanakan
perintahNya dan menjauhi laranganNya dg
baik dan benar.
METODE PSIKOTERAPI
KENABIAN :
 Dengan kekuatan lisan (nasihat dan
membaca beberapa ayat atau surat dari
Al Qur’an).
 Dengan kekuatan permohonan atau
doa khusus dan langsung kepada Allah
SWT.
 Dengan media (tangan dan air).
TAHAPAN-TAHAPAN PROSES
PSIKOTERAPI KENABIAN (1) :
 Tahap Penyadaran dengan jalan
pemberian nasehat yang dapat
menyentuh jiwa dan ruhani atau dengan
jalan menghilangkan hal-hal yang
menutupi jiwa dan ruhani yang
membuat hilangnya kondisi kesadaran
dan keingatan diri.
TAHAPAN-TAHAPAN PROSES
PSIKOTERAPI KENABIAN (2) :
 Tahap bimbingan penyucian diri melalui
praktek pertaubatan dg pengamalan
aqidah, ibadah dan akhlaq.
 Tahap penanaman nilai-nilai Ketuhanan
dengan mengajarkan pesan-pesan
wahyu (Al Qur’an) dan hakikat
kehidupan yang paling hakiki (Al
Hikmah).
Where do C/C’s work? (cont)
 Consulting
– Business/ Industry
– Larger Consulting firms (e.g.,RHR)
– Private Practice/ Executive coaching
 Administration
– Hospitals, VA’s
– Community Mental Health
– Schools and Universities
– Professional organizations
– Non-profits, Government
How are C/C’s trained?

 Two training models


 Boulder Model (1949, APA)
– Scientist-Practitioner Model
– Research/academic + applied skills
 Vail Model (1973, APA)
– Professional Model
– Emphasizes practice, much less research focus
– Development of free-standing professional
schools
Degrees in Clinical and
Counseling
 Master of Arts (M.A.) or Master of
Science (M.S.)
– 2 years, with completion a of Thesis
– Often obtained in route to Ph.D.
– Can teach at community college, see
clients under a supervisor
Degrees in Clinical and
Counseling
 Ph.D., Doctor of Philosophy
– Scientist-practitioner (Boulder Model)
– 3 years related course work
– 1year Dissertation
– 1year Internship (APA approved)
– Totaling a minimum 5 years postgraduate
– APA accredited programs in universities
– Typically in Psychology Department or School of
Education
Degrees in Clinical and
Counseling
 Psy.D (sigh-dee), Doctor of Psychology
– Professional Model (Vail Model)
– 4 to 6 years
– Applied focus
– Not researched driven, some will do
dissertation
– Completion of year internship
– Typically at professional schools
Licensure and Certification

 Motivating forces:
– Protect public from untrained/ incompetent
– Need to establish independent professional
identity
 License- demonstrated competence
 Certification- verify completed education
 Registration- inform state that practicing
Professional Organizations
 American Psychological Association (APA)
– Formed 1892 by G. Stanley Hall
– Over 50 specialty Divisions
– Division 17: Counseling Psychology (1952)
– Division 12: Clinical Psychology (1944)
– Journals, Conferences, Professional Standards,
Ethics Code
 American Psychological Society (APS)
– Dissatisfied scientists broke off from APA in 1988
– Advancement of scientific psychology
History of
Clinical and Counseling
 Modern academic psychology developed in
Western Europe and American
 Psychology born 1879 in Leipzig, Germany
– Wilhelm Wundt
 William James- 1st American Psychologist
– Laboratory at Harvard in 1875
 Shift from structuralism, to functionalism, and
to behaviorism
– Person-centered/ Humanism: 3rd force
– Multi-culturism: 4th force
History: Explanation of Deviant
Members
 Supernatural forces
 Demonology
– Invasion of spirits, Gods, or demons
– Priests were appropriate treatment
 Medical Model
– Define and discover solutions
– Helped to remove stigma
– Note symptoms, reveal disease process,
treatment and prevention
 Psychological Model: Freud
History: Treatment of Deviant
Members
 Dark and Middle Ages
– Often involved cruelty, tortured until
confessed, execution
– Monasteries were refuges
 19th Century
– Treatment shifted to asylums
– Often chained, poorly fed, various
treatments
History: Reform

 Advocates of mentally ill


– Phillip Pinel- release from restraints and treat with
kindness
– Benjamin Rush- Advocated humane treatment in
U.S.
– Dorothea Dix- (1841- 1881 campaign)
• improved conditions in U.S. and Europe
• 32 new mental hospitals
– Clifford Beers- 1908 published book about
experience in asylum: “A mind that found itself”
Bridging Academic and Applied
 Early 1900s, Emil Kraeplin developed 1st
diagnostic system for mental disorders
– Mental illnesses separate and distinct disorder
– Course and outcome predetermined
 Historical events shaping psychology
– World War I
• Army Alpha IQ test to screen recruits
• Army Beta- non-verbal test for illiterates
• Norms, standards, reliability, validity established for tests
– Discipline of Clinical Psychology recognized
Historical Summary:
Take Homes!
 Shift in focus of cause and treatment of
deviant members
– Supernatural Medical Psychological
 Development and merge of academic and
applied psychology
– Facilitated by World Wars
– Need for testing and psychological services
– Development of assessments
– Struggle still seen in models (Boulder vs. Vail)
 Clinical and counseling psychology had
similar and different routes
– Remnants are seen today
Ethics in psychology

 Clinical practice
 Teaching
 Research
 Assessment
 Consulting
 Professional portrayal/ Media
Ethical Dilemma

 Ethical Dilemma: a situation where no


course of action is satisfactory, reasons
for both sides
– Prima Facia- follow principles unless
conflicted with a higher principle (Kitchener,
1984)
 Prevalent ethical issues (Pope & Vetter, 1992):
– Confidentiality
– Dual relationships
Ethical Terminology
 Confidentiality-
– Ethical responsibility to not reveal information
– 3 circumstances when must break confidentiality
– Tarasoff Liability (1971) – Duty to warn, protect

 Privilege-
– Legal right of consumers to control information
– Protected relationship (husband-wife; lawyer-
client)
– Laws vary by state, no partial waiving
Ethical Terminology (cont)

 Assumptions:
– Success treatment requires full disclosure
– Clients will not disclose unless assured privacy

 Informed Consent
– Fully informed about the treatment ($,timing,
Xments, therapist qualifications,etc.)
– Limits of confidentiality
APA Ethics Code
 Rationale
– Protect public and psychologists
– Agreed upon professional standards
– Framework for decisions and grievances
 Revisions
– First code published 1953
– Four extensive revisions since 1953
– Currently use 1992 code, but new revision draft
out by APA
 Format
– Introduction and preamble
– 6 General Principles
– Standards
General Principles
 Principle A: Competence
– Knowledgeable and practice within expertise
 Principle B: Integrity
– Honest and fair, aware how beliefs affect work,
clarify roles
 Principle C: Professional and Scientific
Responsibility
– Uphold professional standards of conduct,
collaborate when necessary, recognize the effect
personal actions have on view of psychology
General Principles (cont)
 Principle D: Respect for People’s Rights and
Dignity
– Value worth/dignity of all people, aware of
differences (i.e., age, gender, race,religion, sexual
orientation, etc), eliminate biases/ prejudices
 Principle E: Concern for Other’s Welfare
– Respect integrity, protect welfare, aware of power
differences, do not exploit or mislead
 Principle F: Social Responsibility
– Work to benefit society (i.e., share knowledge,
pro-bono), work to alleviate suffering, avoid
misuse of work
Higher Order Ethical Principles
 Autonomy
– Responsibility/ freedom for own behavior, not at
the expense of others and must be competent
 Beneficence
– “do good”, contribute to health and welfare
 Non-maleficence
– Above all “do no harm”,
 Justice
– Fairness and equality, equal treatment of all
people
 Fidelity
– Truthfulness, loyalty and trust
Ethical Misconduct
 Psychologist personal vs. professional roles
– Consider public view of psychology
 APA Ethics Review Board
 Report to state licensing board
 Malpractice
– Professional relationship existed
– Negligent Act
– Client harmed
– Negligent act caused harm
The Changing Environment

 Diversity and changing population


– Increased diversity, fewer diverse counselors
– Population is aging
 The era of Managed Care, HMOs
 Efficacy, Accountability, and Cost-
effectiveness
 Defining roles & Competition with other MHPs
 Medical Model vs. Wellness/ Prevention
Era of Managed Care
 Health care controlled by corporations
– Conflict of interest: profit vs. care
– Competition ($ focus, accountability)
 Changes in health care system
– Driven by increasing costs
– Increased accountability
 Accountability
– Demonstrate services accomplish what they claim
– Peer review- judgment of services by peers
– OQ45.2- outcome tracking instrument
Era of Managed Care (cont)

 Cost-effectiveness
– Treatments that work and cost less
– Role of prevention????
 Cost cutting strategies
– Reimburse low cost Dr.’s
– Contract for specific services
– Prospective Payment System (PPS)
– Diagnose Related Groups
– Limit payment to certain “proven” treatments
Empirically Supported
Treatments
 Efficacy vs. Effectiveness
– Efficacy- Does therapy work under controlled
conditions?
– Effectiveness- Does it work in real life?
 Treatment guidelines
– Specify what Xments used for particular disorder
 Manuals to treat symptoms
 Impact on training, education, research
Division 12 list of ESTs
 Division 12 empirically “validated” treatments
– Effective in 2 control/ analogue studies
– Compared to control or other therapy
– Treatment must be manualized
– Population with same disorder
 Treatment manuals
– Facilitate research
– Effective in the “real world”?
 Treatment planning based on diagnosis
– Movement towards medical model
Criticisms of Division 12 List

 Almost all CBT


 Fear that list supercede clinical judgment
 Findings just justified since not “real- world”
 Concerns about therapy manuals
 Use of specific DSM diagnoses
 Limited to therapies that align with medical
model
Who will provide services?

 Master level services


 PhD’s
– Supervise
– Create Manuals
– Administration
 What is cost-effective?
Who gets services?

 HMOs determine what services and who gets


them!
– Permission for services, “gatekeeper”
– Who you see
• Provider Panels
• Provider Profiling
– How much $$
– How many sessions
 Managed Care and ethical considerations
Defining Roles in the New Era

 Specialties fighting for niche


– Facilitates definition of clinical and
counseling
– Relationship with physicians
• Prescription Privileges???
 Medical Model vs. Prevention/ Wellness
– How does it fit into managed care??
Prescription Privileges
(Gutierrez & Silk, 1998)

 Arguments For  Arguments Against


– Integrated care – Against developmental
– Cost-effective framework
– Help underserved – Improve collaboration
– Not enough Psychiatrists – Split the profession
– Different levels of – Increase in premiums
training, licenses, – Specialists better
insurances – Changes in training
– Control of MEDS
– Precedent of other fields
Medical Model vs. Wellness

 Medical Model  Wellness


– Sick-well dichotomy – Developmental
– Labels, diagnosis – Prevention
– Remedial, not – Focus on holism
preventative – Synergistic
– Focus more – Continuum
pathology – Focus on assets
– Focus on deficits
Wellness and Counseling
Psychology
 Definition and Dimensions of Wellness
 Wellness as a paradigm for counseling
psychology
 Prevention
– Psychology should work to put itself “out of
business”
– Cost-effective in era of cost containment
Wellness
Definition & Dimensions
 “Wellness in not just absence of illness”
– WHO (1967)
 Dimensions:
– Social, Physical, Emotional,Intellectual, Spiritual,
Environmental/ Occupational
 Integrative, Synergistic parts
– “sum is greater than whole”
 Wellness as a continuum
– Movement towards higher levels
Wellness: Paradigm for
Counseling Psychology
 Myers (1991)
– Wellness as the paradigm for counseling
psychology
– Label what we already do
– Aligns with developmental focus and
emphasis on positive psychology and
prevention
Section 1 Wrap-Up!!

 Understand the context of helping


professions
 Know where psychologists work, what they
do, and necessary training
 Basic history/ development
 Ethical Considerations
 Current/Future Professional Issues
– HMOs, ESTs, Prevention, Medical vs. Wellness