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PENGENALAN KENDALI MESIN

LISTRIK
Pendahuluan

• Kendali Mesin Listrik: adalah bidang ilmu yang


membahas Kendali atau pengaturan pada mesin listrik
yaitu pada motor dan generator.
• Kendali yang digunakan pada motor yaitu dapat berupa
salah satu atau lebih dari starting (pengasutan),
pengaturan kecepatan, pengaturan torsi, proteksi, dan
stopping.
• Pembahasan Kendali pada kuliah ini adalah yang
menggunakan variable speed drive (konverter).
Definisi
• Definisi kendali atau pengaturan (secara umum) adalah proses
atau upaya untuk mencapai tujuan (sesuai harapan). Tujuan
yang diinginkan dari proses tersebut adalah berjalannya
proses sesuai dengan yang diinginkan.
JENIS-JENIS VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE (UMUM)

• Main types of variable speed drive for industrial applications:


Main types of variable speed drive for industrial applications :
(a) Typical mechanical VSD with an AC motor as the prime mover;
(b) Typical hydraulic VSD with an AC motor as the prime mover;
(c) Typical electromagnetic coupling or Eddy Current coupling;
(d) Typical electrical VSD with a DC motor and DC voltage converter;
(e) Typical electrical VSD with an AC motor and AC frequency converter;
(f) Typical slip energy recovery system or static Kramer system;
Variable speed drives can be classified into three main categories, each with
their own advantages and disadvantages:
• Mechanical variable speed drives
• Hydraulic variable speed drives
• Electrical variable speed drives
Bagian-Bagian Variable Speed Drive

• Bagian-Bagian Utama Variable Speed Drive :


1. Motor listrik
2. Konverter Daya
3. Sistem Kontrol
SKEMA ELECTRICAL VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES
Electric drive in the frame of other science
Kelebihan dan Kekurangan VSD

• Kelebihan VSD :
1. Mengurangi konsumsi energi.
2. Meningkatkan pengaturan proses.
3. Mengurangi mekanikal stress (starting).
4. Meningkatkan faktor daya sistem kelistrikan.

• Kekurangan VSD :
1. Acoustic noise
2. Motor derating
3. Menyuplai harmonisa
Klasifikasi Dasar Mesin Listrik

MESIN LISTRIK
(ELECTRICAL MACHINES)

MESIN ARUS SEARAH MESIN ARUS BOLAK-BALIK


(DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES) (ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINES)

PENGUATAN SENDIRI PENGUATAN TERPISAH MESIN SINKRON MESIN ASINKRON


(SELF EXCTED) (SEPARATELY EXCTED) (SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES) (ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES)

SERIES SHUNT COMPOUND


• Klasifikasi mesin listrik berdasar sumber listrik dan prinsip kerja.
Tipikal hubungan daya
output dan kecepatan
suatu motor.
Trend of Development of Electric Machine
Drive System.
• In the past, due to convenience of torque and speed control, the DC
machine had been used widely for adjustable speed drive (ASD). However,
recently, with the development of power electronics technology, the AC
machine drive system such as the induction machine and the synchronous
machine driven by a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverter
have been used widely.
• The inverter can replace the commutator and brush of DC machine, which
need regular maintenance and are the weak points of a DC machine.
Trend of Development of Power Semiconductor

• In the late 1950s, with the invention of the thyristor, power electronics
was born. The power semiconductor was the key of the power electronics.
• In the 1970s, the gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor had been commercialized.
• In the late 1970s, the bipolar power transistor opened a new horizon of
the control of power because of its relatively simple on and off
capabilities.
• Recently, with the introduction of the integrated gate controlled thyristor
(IGCT) and the fifth-generation insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) to
the market, the performance of the electric machine drive system has
been dramatically improved in the sense of output power of the system
and the control bandwidth of the motion of the drive system.
Trend of Development of Control Electronics

• In the early days of research and development, the control signal for the
power semiconductors came from analog electronics circuits consisting of
transistors, diodes, and R, L, C passive components.
• And, with the development of electronics technology, especially
integrated circuit technology, the mixed digital and analog circuit
consisting of operational amplifiers and TTL logic circuit was used.
• Recently, except for high-frequency switching power supplies, the major
part of the power electronics system, especially the electric machine drive
system, is controlled digitally by one or a few digital signal processors
(DSP).
DASAR MEKANIKAL

• Mesin listrik selalu dihubungkan dengan sistem mekanikal (motor dan


generator).
Pelectrical
Shaft

TL 
Load Electric
(mechanical) motor
TM
Pmechanical
Losses

(a) motor
Pelectrical
Shaft


Prime Electric
Heat Power mover generator
TPM TG
Pmechanical
Losses

(b) generator
TIPIKAL KURVA TORSI-KECEPATAN BEBAN MEKANIK

• Fan, pump, blower.


• Contoh : fan.

Control of air flow of a fan. (a) Control of air flow by a damper.


(b) Performance curves and system head curves.
the torque to drive the fan decreases as the speed of the machine decreases, and the power by
the machine would be decreased proportionally to the cubic of the speed of the machine or to
the cubic of the air flow.
• Hoisting Load; Crane, Elevator
• In the steady state, the hoisting load requires torque due to gravitational
force and friction force of the load.

The torque against the gravitational force is


independent with the moving speed of the
load. However, the friction force increases as
the speed increases, and the torque to drive
the hoisting load could increase as the speed
increases.

In high-speed gearless elevator drive system or


high-power crane drive system, where the
friction force is negligible compared to the
gravitational force or to the acceleration force,
the torque is almost constant regardless of the
speed.
• Torque–speed curve of a typical hoisting load.
• Traction Load (Electric Vehicle, Electric Train)
• The machine, used as the traction machine of the electric vehicle or the
electric train, requires high torque at starting and lowspeed and requires
lowtorque at high speed.
• Main power circuit of a motor car of the subway train.
• Tension Control Load
• Usually, in the driving of the paper mill, steel mill, pay-off roll, and tension
roll, the tension should be controlled as constant in the steady state.
• In this case, if the transportation speed of a paper sheet or a metal sheet
is constant, the rotational speed of the machine decreases as the radius of
the roll increases. Also, the output power of the machine is constant.
• However, in the acceleration or deceleration time, due to the torque for
the acceleration and deceleration the constant power operation cannot be
kept.
• Torque–speed–power curve of tension control machine.
• Continuous annealing processing line.
Jenis-Jenis Beban Mekanik

1. Torque proportional to the square of the shaft speed (Variable torque)


2. Torque linearly proportional to speed (Linear torque)
3. Torque independent of speed (Constant torque)
4. Torque inversely proportional to speed (Inverse torque)
Kerja Multi Kuadran

Wilayah kerja VSD


Variable Speed Drive Topologies

1. DC Motor Drives
2. Induction Motor Drive
a. Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
b. Slip-ring (Wound-rotor) Induction Motor Drive
3. Synchronous Motor Drives
4. Special Motors
a. Brushless DC Motor (BDCM) Drive
b. Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) Drive
c. Linear Motors
d. Stepper Motors
5. Actuators
6. Integrated Motors
SELESAI